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Economic resources are any natural resources , human resources, or capital resources that are useful for production. More specifically, BT is transported into normal colonic epithelial cells by both MCT1 and SMCT1, but its intracellular concentration is kept low because it is efficiently metabolized and effluxed from these cells by BCRP-mediated transport. Time is often said to pass or flow or to be moved through. Humans' propensity for mysticism derives perhaps from their nature as intelligent social animals who survive by detecting patterns and especially intentions in an environment dominated by their social interactions. For example, someone who witnessed a public crime may steer clear of the location where this event took place, or a person involved in a car accident may refuse to drive or ride in a car, despite the inconvenience this may cause for them.
A recent study reported by Medical News Today , for example, suggested that just one drink can shorten our lifespan. The jury's still out on whether drinking in moderation is good for you, but some studies have suggested that even light drinkers are at risk of cancer due to their alcohol intake. A new study, carried out by Finnish-based researchers, adds to these dire prospects. The fact that the study used real-life information makes it unique.
Pietilä and colleagues examined data from 4, men and women aged between 18 and 65, whose heart rate variability HRV was recorded in uncontrolled, real-world conditions using a special device. As the authors write, "The association between acute alcohol intake and physiological changes has not yet been studied in noncontrolled real-world settings.
The scientists had access to sleep HRV recordings from a minimum of 2 nights: HRV measures the variations in time between heartbeats, variations that are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system comprises the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The former controls the fight-or-flight response, whereas the latter is responsible for the "rest-and-digest" state.
Therefore, HRV measurements enabled the researchers to assess the quality of the participants' restful state. The scientists examined the participants' first 3 hours of sleep after drinking alcohol. Alcohol intake was broken down into "low," "moderate," and "high" — categories that were calculated based on the participants' body weight.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans define moderate drinking as up to one drink per day for women, and up to two daily drinks for men. The study revealed that alcohol reduced the restorative quality of sleep. Specifically, a low alcohol intake decreased the physiological recovery that sleep normally provides by 9. Even as little as one drink was shown to impair sleep quality. Moderate alcohol consumption lowered restorative sleep quality by 24 percent, and high alcohol intake by as much as These results were similar for men and women, and alcohol consumption affected sedentary and active people alike.
Interestingly, the harmful effects of alcohol were more pronounced among young people compared with seniors. Study co-author Tero Myllymäki, a professor in the Department of Sports Technology and Exercise Physiology at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, comments on the findings, saying, "When you're physically active, or younger, it's easy, natural even, to feel like you're invincible.
A small change, as long as it's the right one, can have a big impact. If that's not enough, do squares, pentagonal numbers, hexagonal numbers, etc.
Venture into the third and even the fourth dimensions. Use your computer to draw fractals based on simple equations such as Julia sets and Mandelbrot sets.
Find examples of all of them and understand how they differ. Is there an algorithm for getting out of 2-dimensional mazes? Look at the history of mazes some are extraordinary. How would you go about finding someone who is lost in a maze 2 or 3 dimensional and wandering randomly? How many people would you need to find them? Investigate the Steiner problem - one application of which is concerned with the location of telephone exchanges to minimize costs.
Construct a double pendulum and use it to investigate chaos. All forms of gambling are based on probability. Investigate how much casinos anticipate winning from you when you play black-jack, roulette, etc.
Study a variety of lotteries and compare them. Should one ever buy a lottery ticket? Why does three of a kind beat two pairs in poker? Discover why the different types of hands are ranked as they are. Study the cycloid curve: Investigate visual representations of different finite numbers.
Investigate self-avoiding random walks and where they naturally occur. Find as many triangles as you can with integer sides and a simple linear relation between the angles.
What about the special case when the triangle is right-angled? What is a hexaflexagon? Make as may different ones as you can. What is going on? What is fractal dimension? Investigate it by examining examples showing what happens when you double the scale to a lines b areas c solids d the Koch curve Explore Penrose tiles and discover why they are of interest. Do different genres of music each exhibit a unique mathematical pattern? How can the shortest path algorithm be modified to include traffic conditions?
How does the size of a statistical sample affect its accuracy? Do the non-smoking sections in a restaurant protect you from second-hand smoke? Does a person's body temperature vary during the day? What is the affect on the kidneys from drinking different types of liquids?
Does drinking alcohol dehydrate the body? How accurately can people judge room temperature? Construct a homemade stethoscope and use it to listen to heartbeats and measure heart rate. Does a person's pulse rate vary during the day? The objective is to determine whether the mental connation of smells correlates with the heart's response to the scents of aldehydes primarily fruit and flower based and phenols primarily leave, bark, or root based.
What are the effects of passive smoke on ciliary function? Following strenuous exercise, does pulse rate stabilize faster in athletes than in non-athletes? Following strenuous exercise, which fluid is best to drink? Does the type of pushup affect muscle growth?
Compare the neural discrimination times between assorted groups of people. What is the effect of ingested orange juice on blood sugar levels? What affect does exercise have on the oxygen level in the bloodstream? Compare blood pressure readings between assorted groups: How effective is hypnosis as a method for reducing stress? Chitosan is considered potentially useful for numerous applications ranging from biomedical to industrial.
Experiment with ways it would be beneficial in the medical field. Does jet lag affect the performance of professional sports teams? Are there measurable changes in temperature, pulse or respiration following ingestion of caffeine? Does caffeine have an effect on blood pressure? Do creatine supplements enhance athletic performance? Are herbs a viable alternative to modern medicines?
Which beverage stains your teeth the worst? Determine the effect of different liquid substances on the decaying of teeth. Do filtered cigarettes really prevent tar from getting into your lungs when compared to non-filtered cigarettes?
Does the use of wood burning stoves contribute to respiratory illnesses? Does smoking have an immediate effect on temperature, pulse, respiration or blood pressure? Does playing video games affect heart rate? Does loud Rock Music have any effect on a person's hearing?
Does music beat have any effect on a person's blood pressure? Do males have a larger visual blind spot than females? Does visual therapy and exercise improve vision? Are there any health hazards associated with video display terminals? Is the same point on human skin equally sensitive to heat, cold, pain, etc. Compare the temperature adaptability between different groups of people.
What effect does phosphoric acid have on tooth enamel? Is there a relationship between taste and smell? If yes, what is it? Which is better - commercial antacids or herbal remedies? Determine if dosage levels affect the safety of common vitamins. How much sleep, exercise and nutrition do students need to maintain a healthy lifestyle?
Does dieting affect reaction time among teenage girls? Are fresh, home-cooked foods more nutritious than microwave dinners? Are all nerves on human skin equally sensitive to heat, cold, pain, etc.
Is there an identifiable relationships between fingerprints in a family? The study of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia in different test groups. Garlic as an Antifungal Agent How does exercise affect the blood sugars in a diabetic?
Effects of smoking on skin temperature. Which method of cooking is better for retaining vitamin C in foods? Pupil size and reaction to light - age and sex differences. The effect of color on depth perception. Does eating breakfast affect short-term memory? Hot tubs and their effect on blood pressure. Effects of foul smell on blood pressure.
Biostatistical approach to cancer survival. A comparison of their accuracy. How does it affect immune cells?
Does structured breathing increase pain tolerance? Effect of physical exertion on physical and mental response. Effect of vitamins on the regenerative powers of planaria. Effects of optical exposure to low-intensity light. A study of temperature effects on CO2 output. The key element in the development of diabetes. Which kind of bread grows mold the fastest? What kind of mouthwash kills the most bacteria? How can genetic engineering be used to make glow in the dark bacteria? Is it possible to make and use a nutrient agar from materials at home?
Compare the amounts of bacteria in different poultry samples. How sanitary are the wash cloths, sponges, and sinks of the average home? What is the effect of temperature on bacteria in milk? What effects do magnetic or electric fields have on bacteria? What effect does garlic have on bacterial growth? What levels of bacteria are present in school drinking fountains? Which brand of mouthwash is the best control for oral bacteria?
Can naturally occurring substances be used as disinfectants or antibacterials? Which type of bread molds the most rapidly? What factors are beneficial to the growth of bread molds? What is the effect of light and temperature on bread mold? Will penicillin mold grow best in apple juice, vinegar, water, or milk? What is the effect of microwave radiation on bread molds? Will mold s grow on mascara? What effect does ultraviolet light have on the fermentation rate of yeast?
What effect does the sun's ultraviolet rays have on the growth of yeast? Will soil bacteria assist in degrading phenol? What are the effects of various growth medias on dinoflagellates' ability to produce bioluminescence? Devise a biological method to turn cellulose into sugar.
Demonstrate how germs are killed using electrically induced pressure waves in water. The effect of nicotine, air, yeast on mold growth The effects of ultrasonic antibiotics temperature changes on bacteria count Microbial antagonism Reaction of paramecia, planaria to pH, light and temperature conditions Do flies transmit bacteria from one area to another? From what media is transfer easiest?
Is the tobacco mosaic virus inhabited by modified purine and pyrimidine analogues? How do microscopic predators differ in their prey consumption? What are the effects of ultrasonic antibiotics temperature changes on bacteria count? Experimenting with microbial degradation of petroleum Demonstrate how germs are killed using electrically induced pressure waves in water.
What atoms are in sour foods? What is it that makes some foods taste so sour? Foods are sour when they have a high concentration of loose hydrogen atoms. Do an experiments to predict how sour some foods are without tasting them. What molecules are in scabs? When you cut yourself, molecules in your body make a blood clot to seal the wound. The blood clot soon dries into a scab. Make a blood clot and find out what molecules are in blood clots and scabs.
What molecules make the holes in bread? Have you ever noticed the holes in bread? Look at some bread and find the holes in it. Find out what molecules make these holes.
Make your own electrets capacitors with permanent charge using a mixture of waxes baked in an oven. Experiment with some possible uses for the large devices. Build a time to dust alarm. The device would flash a light when it was time to dust.
Perhaps a simple pulsed light emitting diode and photo transistor could be made to work. Demonstrate some uses for super bright light emitting diodes. Perhaps you could build a solid state flashlight that uses the latest super bright white light emitting diodes. Demonstrate a camera system linked to a VCR that is turned on only during human motion.
Such a device is useful for security camera systems Build a voice "Babble" Generator. Circuit generates a sequence of nosey room sounds, with hundreds of people talking, interleaved so in can be continuous. Used to mask other voices, jamming of radios Compare the surface tension of various liquids Does temperature affect the output of a photo-electric cell? Under what different conditions can the human body act as a battery? What is the affect of light concentration on the output of solar cells?
Build a "Jacobs Ladder" to demonstrate air ionization. Does the presence of water, and or other liquids, affect the magnetic force of a magnet? Experiment with electrical signals that are detected from metal probes pushed into the ground. Worms, insects, distant lightning strikes and human foot steps might be detectable Illustrate how a micro-mirror array could be used as a high speed light modulator Build a Tesla Coil and demonstrate the theory behind it.
Build a working model of a system that sends data through walls using magnetic pulses Can an electronic device automatic sort objects by color?
Can the earth's magnetic field be detected by a rapidly spinning coil of wire? What happens to the force needed to lift a weight when an additional pulley is added to a block and tackle? A study of radiation patterns from different antenna types How Does Temperature Affect the Optimal Performance of Fiber Optics Comparing magnetic pysteresis for different materials Experimental exploration of the photoelectric effect Experimenting with electron diffraction Experimenting with various separation techniques e.
Electrophoresis Factors affecting sound dampening Factors affecting sound propagation The Relationship Between Kinetic Energy of a Dropped Object Impacting Water and Height of Its Resulting Wave Index of refraction of liquids versus amount of additive Index of refraction of liquids versus temperature Observations of magnetic permeability of different materials The physics of ski waxes Demonstration of principles: Efficiency studies on transformers The effect of temperature on resistance Study of formation of images on a T.
V tube Does temperature affect data transmission in fiber optic cables? Voice communication with infrared light and fiber optics Compare transmission speeds of copper wire vs.
Do bends in fiber optic cable cause loss of audio data transmission? Which materials exhibit a photoelectric effect? A study of radiation patterns from different antenna types How Light is Affected passing through water e. How is current affected by type of conductor, temperature, filament,etc. Which thermometers are more accurate? How much heat is required to raise the temperature of various substances by an equal amount?
This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser. Available online at https: August 24, U.
Department of Veterans Affairs. Available online at http: April 6, Cirrhosis. June 2, University of California San Francisco. Updated April What I need to know about Cirrhosis. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Updated January 4. Updated May Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Mayo Clinic Staff January 22 Cirrhosis. Updated July Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Updated October MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information].
Update October 4 Cirrhosis. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: Send Us Your Feedback. Choose Topic What is cirrhosis? This article was last reviewed on January 18, This article was last modified on February 1, Some examples of these effects and complications include: An increase in pressure in the vein that carries blood to the liver; this is called portal hypertension.
Causes are wide-ranging but generally fall into one of several categories: Alcoholic—excessive alcohol use over time can lead to alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Symptoms may be nonspecific and include: Both panels include the following tests: Alanine aminotransferase ALT — an enzyme found mainly in the liver.
Values are increased with all types of liver injury, including cirrhosis.