Eliminating carbs and lowering calories offers three pounds off per week.
This means that the body can assimilate each type of protein in Sustain-It at a different rate, driving muscle growth by extending the period of amino acid availability and nourishing the muscles over a longer period of time. Ultimate ProFIT is not just a protein; it's a superfood nutrition product that gives you total body benefits that can improve your health and your waistline. Just a another scam to make you buy the products. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: Royal College of Physicians. Very rarely is it a good sign when a company has such a limited amount of reviews available. If using both Defining Gel and Stretch Mark as part of your beauty regimen, use one product in the morning and the other in the evening.
This is cheap to produce and is often found in many kinds of foods. Considered likely safe in the amounts typically found in food. It has an unmatched ability to help create viscosity with just a small amount of liquid added. This is often added at a concentration of just 0. It can help prevent the oil separation that occurs when dry and wet ingredients are added. Also used as an alternative to gluten.
In this link is our expert reviewed list showcasing the most effective diets for weight loss. Studies have shown it can lead to potential side effects. One study by the Hachinohe National College of Technology showed that sucralose:. The effect on reducing gut bacteria may cause damage to the immune system. Also, P-Glycoprotein is only released by the body when a potential toxin might cause damage. So according to this study, the body treats sucralose as a toxic ingredient.
Sucralose is added as an alternative to sugar which is supposed to be a much healthier alternative. The issue with this additive is that due to its processed nature, it can potentially lead to unwanted side effects. This can also have similar effects to standard table sugar, such as an effect on increasing insulin levels. Artificial sweetener that is calorie-free and around times sweeter than sucrose.
So it can be eaten in large amounts and not effect hunger levels, this can potentially increase the risk for obesity. This artificial sweetener has been used controversially, as many studies have shown it has the potential to cause side effects. There are many ingredients in these foods which are cheap and often added to very generic types of prepackaged foods. Better options are available which do not use processed, artificial, and cheap additives.
The top 10 list of the best shakes features much better quality options. Learn about the top ranked diets including the number diet, which has all natural ingredients and just 1 gram of natural sugar. Mineral that shares similarities to plastic. This is added to help treat weak bones, stroke, and often as an inactive ingredient to prevent caking. Higher amounts of this ingredient can potentially lead to it passing the blood brain barrier, which may be unhealthy. Web MD has also added:.
Finding the ingredients to their foods was difficult, and after discovering what was added it became clear why. There are artificial sweeteners, artificial flavors, potentially damaging thickeners, and many cheap forms of protein. The company has failed to add their own ingredients label online, and instead they ask those interested to visit one of their centers. Fortunately, there were some users who posted the supplements facts label to the shakes online, though labels for the foods are lacking.
Both of these are poor in comparison to the unknown quantities of whey protein, which is also added to this shake. It would have been much better quality if they avoided these other 2 forms of cheap protein.
Learn about the most effective diets by visiting the top 10 list featured here. They also fail to mention what the amino acid content is. Amino acids help determine:. Amino acids are needed when replacing meals as they are essential to regulate many important body processes. They also fail to properly describe what makes their meal replacements stand out. Many of the ingredients are common to other standard shakes. After reading the nutrition facts label and looking at the overall vitamins and minerals, it appears to be a very standard meal replacement with nothing unique about it other than the heavy use of processed and artificial additives.
Other concerns exist from the kinds of foods provided in this plan. Mostly snack and bite size foods are offered instead of any real substance. They also fail to list any of the nutrition facts label. This makes it impossible to do a proper review on what one can expect from these foods.
They describe it as being:. For a comprehensive review of the top 10 ranked diets for weight loss, click this link. This is meant more as an easy to follow stepping stone so one can get used to eating reduced calories foods, which are already prepped and easy to go. The benefit of using already made foods is that it can take away from the temptation of eating rich foods.
This is why the company has decided to offer non-traditional diet foods such as bars, wafers, desserts, fruit drinks, and much more. Combine this supplement with a proven meal replacement such as 18Shake for better results. This includes paying for pre-packaged meals which is of unknown price. There are also different diet phases which range in cost.
They also fail to list any relevant information about the use of processed ingredients which are found in some foods like the shakes. Instead of giving insights into the nutritional value, weight loss effects, or what one can expect in terms of nutrition, the company has decided to instead only talk about the foods consistency and taste. Because they are selling a comprehensive weight loss plan, these foods are a small apart of a greater solution for weight loss. The company places little emphasis on this due to the fact they are asking potential customers to actually talk to a representative in person.
Many of the ingredients have been shown in clinical studies to lead to metabolism disorders and weight gain. The company also asks users to use Ideal Protein in 4 different phases. Ideal Protein phase 1 is to determine what practical weight loss goals are. While this is more comprehensive, this also raises the price. Ideal Protein phase 2 is similar to phase 1, but provides more in depth coaching and counseling.
There are cheap processed ingredients that make up the bulk of these foods. This raises the Ideal Protein cost unnecessarily, as these additives can be bought cheaper elsewhere. There is no need to have to purchase this since the same basic formula is featured in many other shakes and foods. As far as other Ideal Protein Products go, the overall price can be high to receive the entire system as a whole. The majority of those who invested in Ideal Protein products added how it was far too pricy for what is being offered.
For a list of diets that made the top 10, click here. The Ideal Protein brand is owned by Laboratoires C. They can be reached through the following contact detail.
Gatineau Qc J8Z 1W1. This is often because groups in Canada go through a different quality assurance system.
They are not bound by any entity like the FDA. There is no information on whether they operate these kinds of services outside of Canada. The only available information listed is about their CEO changes, though they do offer contact details. My Ideal Protein is also offered which helps connect users with more information on the overall diet plan offered.
Though to access this part of the website one first has to be a member. My Ideal Protein is more of a supplemental part of the overall diet which can be done online whether on a computer or mobile device. The company assists those who implement the plan with insights into how to properly manage weight after one has cut calories drastically. The idea is to make smarter dietary decisions and getting rid of unhealthy foods.
They also add they can teach:. This can amount to a lot of money, and if one were to gain weight again it could mean long-term payment plans which can be costly. Follow the link to see a list featuring the top ranked diets for weight loss as seen by our review experts.
For the best results with meal replacement shakes diet our experts recommend to use it at least 5 months. Save your money buying a few bags of meal replacement product. Ideal Protein reviews are scattered online from many different sources.
There were also negative reviews from those who tried Ideal Protein recipes. Some added how they tried to mix this shake with fruits and vegetables, but that the consistency was not pleasant.
Overall, it seems from user reviews that by trying to make this shake work as a full meal plan that it was not satisfying and that it did not help support their weight loss goals.
This makes it seem unlikely to work as a functional weight loss shake. See which weight loss diet plans were rated as the most effective by visiting our expert crafted list of the top 10 most wholesome. One common complaint was that it did not lead to sustained weight loss results. Any benefits that people noticed were lost as soon as normal eating began.
Also, there are some who only lost a few pounds yet they made sure to stay disciplined. This can lead to a waste of time and money. Some users ended giving up after a few short weeks of noticing little to no changes.
Discover which diets were rated as being the most effective for delivering weight loss benefits by clicking this link. Ideal Protein has an interesting website that claims to offer the ideal weight loss solution. Their shakes are loaded with artificial sugars, mostly cheap protein sources, and they make it hard to know anything about what these shakes have to offer.
The same goes for the foods which only have descriptions as to their taste instead of their nutritional content. Ideal Protein food is often described as being unfulfilling, chalky, and not easy to mix by users. This was far too general and not specific enough to promote long lasting weight loss results. The better solution would be an all-natural, filler free, and nutritionally well-rounded diet.
Customers have left testimonials showing how effective their weight loss effects were. Best of all, it combines a potent metabolism booster and a wholesome meal replacement shake. The metabolism booster Vitakor contains a blend of potent extracts such as fennel seed, flax seed oil, cape aloe, and other potent compounds. Before and after photos are also provided by users who used Vitakor individually, when combined with 18Shake it can boost overall weight loss results. Vitakor is free of any artificial additives or stimulants.
Unlike Ideal Protein it contains unprocessed ingredients and a blend of proven ingredients. To learn more about the 18Shake Diet click here. When i was on the diet i absolutely loved it - this is the first diet i have ever been on where i lost weight so quickly and from areas in my body that were never changed from other diets. I was never hungry and it was exciting to see the changes in my body. I also had tons of energy. However this diet never really helped me control my eating after I ended the program.
I started to gain the weight back so easily it was discouraging. Also coincidentally me and a friend who also went on this diet was soon diagnosed with cancer a few months after we stopped. It's the only diet I have completed where I actually changed my body shape in 5 months because I lost mostly fat. I did weight watchers and when I reached my goal took over a year I still had a lot of fat on me.
Never had any side effects from their food. Love, Love, Love the program. Lost 45lbs in 5 months. I am a power lifter and loss no strength.
My ideal protein nutritionist and Doc told me to stop because for my size and workout routine I had lost enough. I kept the weight off for almost 2 years. Got hurt squatting tore my abductor and had to stop lifting for 6 months and gained 30 lbs. Now I'm starting over. I am 74 years old and have been on the "ideal protein diet for almost 20 weeks. During that time I have had more energy and my joints feel a lot better.
I have lost in the 20 weeks over 75 lbs and taken 6 inches off my waist. The clinic I go to is overseen by a Dr. This diet is recommended in our area by the heart doctors and the orthopedic specialists. I say do it but you have to stick with the program and significantly change your eating habits after the program is over and you have reached your goal. Hate the food if that is what you want to call it. Maybe a better word is protein replacements.
No refund or exchanges, if you do not like it. Just a another scam to make you buy the products. As if doctors do not make enough. I went on this by dr. I love this diet I lost 85 lbs in 5 months and have kept it off.
My doctor even approved of this diet. This diet helped me loose 85 lbs in 5 months and keep it off. I never had any side effects.
And my doctor approved of this diet. Avoiding sugar and carbs is essential for me. With O blood type hunter-gatherer the 8oz meat everyday makes quite a difference in how I feel. Getting into the state of Ketosis burning fat for energy as oppose to glucose and carbs is the key and facing someone monitor that condition is important too. Being able to eat unlimited nonstarchy green vegetables as well as 0 glycemic factor vegetables also helps.
This diet seems to be really working for me and my type of body. I lost 35 lbs in 8 weeks, gained muscle and lost inches all over in the process. Low calorie intake sometimes results in loosing pounds..
One thing I did notice, as our office used to run this program, is that a lot of people expect to keep the weight off after the diet. It's very, very possible, but you'll find there are a LOT of people who believe that they are able to keep it off after by going back to the eating habits they were in before.
Fast food, chips, ice cream? If your coach doesn't phase you off properly then yeah, I can understand the complaints. However, if you gain it all back afterwards, then why don't you tell me what you're eating and how much of it you're eating?
I used to drink 4 or 5 cans of mountain dew a day, a lot of carbs, and whatever I so pleased. I'm 5'4 and I was pushing at the time. I cut soda, I'm on a partial IP diet at the moment, started eating more veggies and protein, and I'm at If you wanna lose fast use IP. If you want to keep it off, I'm sorry, but you have to avoid everything that you love, save them for rainy days. What you do after you're done is not their decision. I lost quickly and felt great during the process.
It works great if you do it with fidelity. Several months before my 50th birthday, I made a very short bucket list. I wanted to read the Bible cover to cover, and I wanted to finally lose the weight I had accumulated over two decades. I started Ideal Protein in late September, and phased off totally by my birthday, having lost nearly 70 pounds. It was not easy, but I am a disciplined, determined person, and this plan has the structure I like and needed to be successful.
It was not cheap, but it was worth it. I found it best not to get things that I had to prepare like their soups, pancakes, etc. I am not trying to make a sumptuous eating experience out of their meals. Simply, they were there to serve a purpose, and that was to lose weight. I opted for ready to eat bars and other snacks. The only exception was the chocolate or vanilla powdered drinks.. I highly recommend it There are good weeks, and some not so good weeks. The results aren't consistent, but over time, you will be satisfied.
Best of luck to anyone trying Ideal Protein. Lost 23 lbs in 10 weeks. Most of these side-effects are dose-dependent, the most common being elevated blood pressure , especially in those with pre-existing hypertension. AAS have been shown to alter fasting blood sugar and glucose tolerance tests. A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use AAS. For example, AAS may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones premature epiphyseal fusion through increased levels of estrogen metabolites , resulting in stunted growth.
Other effects include, but are not limited to, accelerated bone maturation , increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development. AAS use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to health. Probably carcinogenic to humans. Other side-effects can include alterations in the structure of the heart , such as enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle , which impairs its contraction and relaxation , and therefore reducing ejected blood volume.
AAS use can cause harmful changes in cholesterol levels: AAS use in adolescents quickens bone maturation and may reduce adult height in high doses. There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiol , may arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase. This side-effect is temporary; the size of the testicles usually returns to normal within a few weeks of discontinuing AAS use as normal production of sperm resumes.
Female-specific side effects include increases in body hair , permanent deepening of the voice, enlarged clitoris , and temporary decreases in menstrual cycles. Alteration of fertility and ovarian cysts can also occur in females. Kidney tests revealed that nine of the ten steroid users developed a condition called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis , a type of scarring within the kidneys.
The kidney damage in the bodybuilders has similarities to that seen in morbidly obese patients, but appears to be even more severe.
High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. A review in CNS Drugs determined that "significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania , and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS".
Recreational AAS use appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood disorders , and progression to other forms of substance abuse, but the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood.
Large-scale long-term studies of psychiatric effects on AAS users are not currently available. DSM-IV lists General diagnostic criteria for a personality disorder guideline that "The pattern must not be better accounted for as a manifestation of another mental disorder, or to the direct physiological effects of a substance e. As a result, AAS users may get misdiagnosed by a psychiatrist not told about their habit. Affective disorders have long been recognised as a complication of AAS use.
From the mids onward, the media reported "roid rage" as a side effect of AAS. A review determined that some, but not all, randomized controlled studies have found that AAS use correlates with hypomania and increased aggressiveness, but pointed out that attempts to determine whether AAS use triggers violent behavior have failed, primarily because of high rates of non-participation. Compared with individuals that did not use steroids, young adult males that used AAS reported greater involvement in violent behaviors even after controlling for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.
The drug response was highly variable. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures. A study of two pairs of identical twins, in which one twin used AAS and the other did not, found that in both cases the steroid-using twin exhibited high levels of aggressiveness, hostility, anxiety, and paranoid ideation not found in the "control" twin.
The relationship between AAS use and depression is inconclusive. There have been anecdotal reports of depression and suicide in teenage steroid users,  but little systematic evidence. A review found that AAS may both relieve and cause depression, and that cessation or diminished use of AAS may also result in depression, but called for additional studies due to disparate data. Androgens such as testosterone , androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone are required for the development of organs in the male reproductive system , including the seminal vesicles , epididymis , vas deferens , penis and prostate.
The pharmacodynamics of AAS are unlike peptide hormones. However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.
From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes  or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. The effect of AAS on muscle mass is caused in at least two ways: It has been hypothesized that this reduction in muscle breakdown may occur through AAS inhibiting the action of other steroid hormones called glucocorticoids that promote the breakdown of muscles.
As their name suggests, AAS have two different, but overlapping, types of effects: Some examples of the anabolic effects of these hormones are increased protein synthesis from amino acids , increased appetite, increased bone remodeling and growth, and stimulation of bone marrow , which increases the production of red blood cells. Through a number of mechanisms AAS stimulate the formation of muscle cells and hence cause an increase in the size of skeletal muscles , leading to increased strength.
The androgenic effects of AAS are numerous. Depending on the length of use, the side effects of the steroid can be irreversible. Processes affected include pubertal growth, sebaceous gland oil production, and sexuality especially in fetal development. Some examples of virilizing effects are growth of the clitoris in females and the penis in male children the adult penis size does not change due to steroids [ medical citation needed ] , increased vocal cord size, increased libido , suppression of natural sex hormones , and impaired production of sperm.
Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e.
This disassociation is less marked in humans, where all AAS have significant androgenic effects. A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The VP weight is an indicator of the androgenic effect, while the LA weight is an indicator of the anabolic effect.
Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Animal studies also found that fat mass was reduced, but most studies in humans failed to elucidate significant fat mass decrements.
The effects on lean body mass have been shown to be dose-dependent. Both muscle hypertrophy and the formation of new muscle fibers have been observed. The hydration of lean mass remains unaffected by AAS use, although small increments of blood volume cannot be ruled out.
The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. After drug withdrawal, the effects fade away slowly, but may persist for more than 6—12 weeks after cessation of AAS use. Overall, the exercise where the most significant improvements were observed is the bench press. The measurement of the dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects among AAS is based largely on a simple although arguably unsophisticated and outdated model involving rat tissue bioassays.
The intracellular metabolism theory explains how and why remarkable dissociation between anabolic and androgenic effects can occur despite the fact that these effects are mediated through the same signaling receptor, and of course why dissociation is invariably incomplete.
An animal study found that two different kinds of androgen response elements could differentially respond to testosterone and DHT upon activation of the AR.
Changes in endogenous testosterone levels may also contribute to differences in myotrophic—androgenic ratio between testosterone and synthetic AAS. Testosterone can be metabolized by aromatase into estradiol , and many other AAS can be metabolized into their corresponding estrogenic metabolites as well.
The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia woman-like breasts. AAS are androstane or estrane steroids. As well as others such as 1-dehydrogenation e. The most commonly employed human physiological specimen for detecting AAS usage is urine, although both blood and hair have been investigated for this purpose. The AAS, whether of endogenous or exogenous origin, are subject to extensive hepatic biotransformation by a variety of enzymatic pathways.
The primary urinary metabolites may be detectable for up to 30 days after the last use, depending on the specific agent, dose and route of administration. A number of the drugs have common metabolic pathways, and their excretion profiles may overlap those of the endogenous steroids, making interpretation of testing results a very significant challenge to the analytical chemist.
Methods for detection of the substances or their excretion products in urine specimens usually involve gas chromatography—mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of gonadal steroids pre-dates their identification and isolation. Medical use of testicle extract began in the late 19th century while its effects on strength were still being studied. In the s, it was already known that the testes contain a more powerful androgen than androstenone , and three groups of scientists, funded by competing pharmaceutical companies in the Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland, raced to isolate it.
The chemical synthesis of testosterone was achieved in August that year, when Butenandt and G. Wettstein, announced a patent application in a paper "On the Artificial Preparation of the Testicular Hormone Testosterone Androstenoneol. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionate , began as early as Kennedy was administered steroids both before and during his presidency.
The development of muscle-building properties of testosterone was pursued in the s, in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Bloc countries such as East Germany, where steroid programs were used to enhance the performance of Olympic and other amateur weight lifters.
In response to the success of Russian weightlifters, the U. The new steroid was approved for use in the U. It was most commonly administered to burn victims and the elderly. The drug's off-label users were mostly bodybuilders and weight lifters. Although Ziegler prescribed only small doses to athletes, he soon discovered that those having abused Dianabol suffered from enlarged prostates and atrophied testes. Three major ideas governed modifications of testosterone into a multitude of AAS: Androgens were discovered in the s and were characterized as having effects described as androgenic i.
Although anabolic steroid was originally intended to specifically describe testosterone-derived steroids with a marked dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effect, it is applied today indiscriminately to all steroids with AR agonism-based anabolic effects regardless of their androgenic potency, including even non-synthetic steroids like testosterone itself. The legal status of AAS varies from country to country: Unlawful distribution or possession with intent to distribute AAS as a first offense is punished by up to ten years in prison.
Those guilty of buying or selling AAS in Canada can be imprisoned for up to 18 months. In Canada, researchers have concluded that steroid use among student athletes is extremely widespread.
A study conducted in by the Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport found that nearly 83, Canadians between the ages of 11 and 18 use steroids. AAS are readily available without a prescription in some countries such as Mexico and Thailand. The history of the U. The same act also introduced more stringent controls with higher criminal penalties for offenses involving the illegal distribution of AAS and human growth hormone. By the early s, after AAS were scheduled in the U.
In the Controlled Substances Act, AAS are defined to be any drug or hormonal substance chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens , progestins , and corticosteroids that promote muscle growth. The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , which added prohormones to the list of controlled substances , with effect from January 20, In the United Kingdom, AAS are classified as class C drugs for their illegal abuse potential, which puts them in the same class as benzodiazepines.
Part 1 drugs are subject to full import and export controls with possession being an offence without an appropriate prescription. There is no restriction on the possession when it is part of a medicinal product. Part 2 drugs require a Home Office licence for importation and export unless the substance is in the form of a medicinal product and is for self-administration by a person.
Many other countries have similar legislation prohibiting AAS in sports including Denmark,  France,  the Netherlands  and Sweden. United States federal law enforcement officials have expressed concern about AAS use by police officers.
It's not that we set out to target cops, but when we're in the middle of an active investigation into steroids, there have been quite a few cases that have led back to police officers," says Lawrence Payne, a spokesman for the United States Drug Enforcement Administration.
Following the murder-suicide of Chris Benoit in , the Oversight and Government Reform Committee investigated steroid usage in the wrestling industry. The documents stated that 75 wrestlers—roughly 40 percent—had tested positive for drug use since , most commonly for steroids. AAS are frequently produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but, in nations where stricter laws are present, they are also produced in small home-made underground laboratories, usually from raw substances imported from abroad.
As with most significant smuggling operations, organized crime is involved. In the late s, the worldwide trade in illicit AAS increased significantly, and authorities announced record captures on three continents. In , Finnish authorities announced a record seizure of A year later, the DEA seized In the first three months of , Australian customs reported a record seizures of AAS shipments.
Illegal AAS are sometimes sold at gyms and competitions, and through the mail, but may also be obtained through pharmacists, veterinarians, and physicians. AAS, alone and in combination with progestogens , have been studied as potential male hormonal contraceptives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about androgens as medications.
For androgens as natural hormones, see Androgen. Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids. Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Illegal trade in anabolic steroids. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal.
British Journal of Pharmacology. Houglum J, Harrelson GL, eds. Principles of Pharmacology for Athletic Trainers 2nd ed. Int J Sports Med. Mini Rev Med Chem. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases". Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Pharmacology Application in Athletic Training. Clinical Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment.
Royal College of Physicians. Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, 2d ed. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 21 June A systematic review and meta-analysis".
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. Clinics in Liver Disease. The named reference Llewellyn was invoked but never defined see the help page. Neidle 19 March Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry - E-Book. Do testosterone injections increase libido for elderly hypogonadal patients?