November 26, - Women's Basketball No. Here are the best picks for the venerable SATA interface. Subscribe to get the best content of the week, and great gaming deals, as picked by the editors. March 3, - Women's Basketball No. So, whilst there is no property inherently within nitrox or oxygen that directly reduces fatigue, it does promote more efficient off-gassing and reduce decompression stress on the ascent. For example, clicking on the Cat link will show relative placings in each age category.
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Decompression sickness is caused by inert gases leaving solution inside the body and forming bubbles. If allowed to grow sufficiently large, those bubbles present signs and symptoms, which allow DCS to be diagnosed, such as;. Localized pain, skin itching Pruritis and skin rash Cutis marmorata. Severe pain, organ failure, decreasing levels of consciousness, cognitive ability, communication, mobility, dexterity, sensation and bodily control including; breathing, bladder and bowel control.
Whilst these effects have been noted in studies, they are not yet proven. However, they may be added to the list in the future and I anticipate that we might see further classifications of DCS in the following years as further research is conducted.
We can see that the severity and type of DCS diagnosed is related to the frequency quantity , location and, most importantly, size of the bubbles that occur in the body. However, DCS is only diagnosed if it conforms with the symptoms known for the types listed above; and if it reaches a level of severity that provokes the victim to seek medical attention.
DCS is not an all-or-nothing ailment. It is a scale of severity. On that scale, there is a point below which the victim is not at risk of immediate physical harm.
Bubbles occur in our bodies on the ascent from most scuba dives, but those bubbles have to reach a sufficient size before they cause enough immediate harm to present symptoms that allow a diagnosis and treatment of DCS.
These bubbles may remain subclinically small in size but may occur in large numbers. They may also, in sufficiently large numbers, still have a noticeable if not immediately harmful impact upon us. It has been proposed that post-dive unnatural fatigue, malaise, reduced vitality and drowsiness are symptoms of the increased frequency of non-symptomatic micro-bubbles.
Historically, it has been considered harmless. It is therefore hardly surprising that there can be a poorly defined boundary between wellness and mild DCI following diving. However, enter the iceberg principle. The Trouble With Bubbles. UK Diving in Depth. A quantity of these bubbles will persist during the surface decompression phase; determined by the effectiveness of in-water decompression.
However, these micro-bubbles also known as silent bubbles are insufficiently large to cause us significant, immediate physical harm. The frequency number of those bubbles is determined by the effectiveness of off-gassing nitrogen on the ascent. Decompression models used in dive tables and computers assign a maximum value m-value to ascent supersaturation in order to prevent those micro-bubbles from growing to a size that causes clinically diagnoseable harm symptomatic decompression sickness.
Nonetheless, all modern decompression models are concerned with preventing bubbles growing to a harmful size, but not concerned about limiting the frequency of smaller bubbles for the sake of their impact on post-dive vitality and long-term health. Decompression calculations are always a trade-off between safety and time. Until diving medicine can prove any long-term health implications of decompression stress, that is likely to continue. Factors known to influence off-gassing efficiency and micro-bubble elimination include; ascent speed, ascent stops, dive profile, repetitive dives, bounce dives and ascent gas selection.
The ascent speed dictates the relationship between tissue super-saturation and the rate at which nitrogen can be eliminated by the body. Excessive speed causes nitrogen to form bubbles which can grow to a DCS symptomatic size. Insufficient speed limits off-gassing efficiency by lowering the pressure gradient between saturated nitrogen and the surrounding atmosphere the difference between the partial pressure of nitrogen absorbed within the body and that within the gas we are breathing.
Pausing on ascent at specific depths allows nitrogen to be eliminated from the body; both saturated nitrogen from the tissues and by shrinking or eliminating nitrogen micro-bubbles. Other factors, such as, depth and bottom time influenced the efficiency of safety stops. The profile of individual dives or repetitive or multi-day diving routines is an important factor in determining bubble formation.
Saw-tooth dive profiles create more bubbles with each rise in depth. This cumulative effect leads to a much higher bubble score by the time the final ascent is completed. This is common behaviour on diving focused vacations or for novice divers with weak buoyancy control who struggle to maintain consistent depth on shallow dives.
Utilizing an appropriate ascent gas breathing mix reduces tissue tension across the surface of micro-bubbles, helping to maintain a negative pressure gradient that promotes effective off-gassing and bubble elimination. The higher the percentage oxygen, the more efficient pressure gradient to shrink bubbles and remove nitrogen from the body. Adhering to a proper ascent speed, multiple shallow safety stops and ideal ascent gasses are not taught within the curriculum of many recreational diving agencies.
In short, currently taught recreational diving practices may not offer sufficient minimization of decompression stress, especially when repetitive and multi-day shallow diving occurs. The additional, but often not educated, benefit of nitrox is that the reduced partial pressure of nitrogen, coupled with an increased partial pressure of oxygen, serves to increase the gas differential between tissues, lungs and ambient pressure.
This increased gas differential accelerates the rate of nitrogen release from our bodies on the ascent, compared to air, without allowing bubbles to grow. Simply put, we off-gas more efficiently as nitrogen partial pressure decreases. There are a great many divers who claim to feel noticeably better after diving if they use nitrox rather than air. The anecdotal belief that nitrox, through some inherent property of the increased oxygen partial pressure in the body, reduced post-dive fatigue prompted several scientific studies.
Air, Nitrox and Fatigue. Measurement of fatigue following 18 msw dry chamber dives breathing air or enriched air nitrox. To date, research has indicated that there is no difference in fatigue levels between air and EAN36 dives. Brueggeman P, Pollock NW, eds. Diving for Science If there was no decompression stress, then nitrox had no impact upon reducing fatigue that may result from it.
For this reason, immune-suppressant and anti-inflammatory drugs are often administered during hyperbaric treatment for DCS. This immune response has a domino effect on blood chemistry that leads to marked changes in the tissues long after the bubbles are gone […] This same process might be the explanation of the excessive fatigue that many divers describe after diving — the fatigue actually being the complement activation damage that is know to occur distant from local bubble sites and the hemoconcentration that occurs.
The Complement System and Diving. The result is that blood flow is blocked—potentially harming vital organs such as the spinal cord and the brain. New Methods to Avoid Decompression Sickness. Numerous occurrence of smaller bubbles will not have a local, obviously symptomatic, effect; but may have a lower grade systemic impact. Although microbubbles can be detected in the pulmonary artery on decompression using ultrasound, mammalian lungs are competent filters for microbubbles larger than 20 microns in diameter.
It has been assumed that smaller bubbles released by the lungs are harmless, because there is evidence that they do not arrest in the cerebral circulation. Microbubble Damage to the Blood-Brain Barrier: Relevance to Decompression Sickness. In these diseases, intravascular gas offers a signal of infection to immune cells. Platelet activation by gas may often accompany a beneficial immune response to pathogens. Pathologic bubble-platelet interaction in decompression illness may be an example of gene-environment mismatch.
Central nervous system CNS injury may be subtle or blatant and peripheral nerves may be involved. Gene-environment mismatch in decompression sickness and air embolism. Alcock J, Brainard AH. Epub Mar It is typically brought about by endurance exercise which may cause consequent neurochemical changes in the brain; primarily the increased release of serotonin 5HT. Whilst there are no current scientific tests to prove a direct causal link between the neurochemical changes and fatigue, existing methods have provided enough evidence to suggest that serotonin and dopamine are significant drivers of central nervous system fatigue.
We have seen that serotonin can be induced as a vasodilator during the immune system reaction to bubble occurrence in the body, so much so that anti-inflammatory drugs are now the norm in treating DCS. Lila started his career with hometown club, Besa Kavajë. He made his debut for the club during the —03 season in the Albanian Superliga on 14 December in an away match against Teuta Durrës.
Lila came on as a substitute at half time by replacing Ervin Bardhi. However it was not a game to remember for the young Lila as it finished 5—0 to Teuta Durrës. Following his return, he was made captain of the team. During the —08 season he played 26 times without scoring a goal.
Lila completed his move to Tirana on 21 July after him and his agent Sokol Haxhia agreed to terms with the capital club and its president Refik Halili. Lila didn't have to wait long for another goal as it came less than a week later on 20 September against Apolonia Fier , his goal came in the 28th minute of the game. He was given squad number 3 and made his competitive debut on 27 August by starting in the goalless draw against Aris Thessaloniki in the opening week of —12 Superleague Greece.
With 8 yellow cards, Lila had the second worst disciplinary record within the team. Lila begun his second season on 25 August by playing in the 0—0 draw versus Platanias at Zosimades Stadium. Once again he had the second worst disciplinary record within the team. After his loan spell at Parma ended, Lila initially refused to return with the hopes of finding a new club in Serie A.
He made his th Superleague Greece on 24 January by playing 70th minutes in the 0—2 win against Atromitos. Lila started the —17 season by making his Europa League debut for the club on 14 July by starting in the first leg of first qualifying round against Odds BK as the team achieved a comfortable 3—0 win. On 25 March , Lila was recorded making fun with a certain Greek priest while on international duties. On 21 July , Lila signed a new contract until June Lila was first called up to the Albania national team by Otto Baric in late ; it was his performances as a right back for Besa Kavajë in the Albanian Superliga that caught the eye of the Croatian.
He made his debut for the senior team in a Euro qualifiers against Romania in Bucarest on 21 November However it wasn't a debut to remember because the match ended 6—1 to Romania and the coach that had called the young defender up to the senior squad quit as the head coach of the Albanian national team just one hour after the final whistle of the embarrassing defeat.
The next manager of the national team also liked Lila's play and this earned him a call up by Arie Haan to his first game in charge which was a friendly against Poland on 27 May The game ended in a 1—0 loss but the Albanians played well after conceding in the 3rd minute. Andi Lila managed to play another two games under Arie Haan , in a friendly against Liechtenstein and a World Cup qualifier against Malta.
In both matches he came on as a substitute. Initially, UEFA awarded Serbia with a 3—0 win, but were deducted three points, leading both Serbia and Albania appeals to the Court of Arbitration for Sport,  who on 10 July , awarded Albania with a 3—0 victory and Serbia were still deducted three points. Lila was an unused substitute in the opening Group A match against Switzerland as Albania fall 0—1.
He is married with Ornela Lila, and they become parents for the first time on 20 March when Lila's wife gave birth to the couple's first son, named Ayan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Andi Lila Lila with Albania in March Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 24 October Arkiva Shqiptare e Lajmeve.
Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 26 June Aris Thessaloniki 0 — 0". Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 26 December Palatanias 0 — 0". Panserraikos 1 — 0". PAS Giannina 0 — 2". PAS Giannina 2 — 3".
Retrieved 25 January Do të shkoj te Rijeka" [Andi Lila confirms: I will go at Rijeka] in Albanian. Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 28 December Po shkoj te Parma" [Lila confirms: I'm going to Parma] in Albanian.
Retrieved 1 January Retrieved 4 April Andi Lila è un giocatore del Parma.