They also directed that immunization screening and referral become a standard part of WIC certification. Defra Research Project IS Also see answers to the following questions: Studies conducted in the Experimental Lakes Area in Ontario have shown a relationship between the addition of phosphorus and the rate of eutrophication. General Accounting Office , Polish Journal of Environmental Studies.
Related Conditions & Diseases
Economic instruments, "which include, among others, property rights, water markets, fiscal and financial instruments, charge systems and liability systems, are gradually becoming a substantive component of the management tool set used for pollution control and water allocation decisions.
By internalizing the costs associated with the negative effects on the environment, governments are able to encourage a cleaner water management. Because a body of water can have an effect on a range of people reaching far beyond that of the watershed, cooperation between different organizations is necessary to prevent the intrusion of contaminants that can lead to eutrophication.
Agencies ranging from state governments to those of water resource management and non-governmental organizations, going as low as the local population, are responsible for preventing eutrophication of water bodies. In the United States, the most well known inter-state effort to prevent eutrophication is the Chesapeake Bay.
Soil Nitrogen Testing N-Testing is a technique that helps farmers optimize the amount of fertilizer applied to crops. By testing fields with this method, farmers saw a decrease in fertilizer application costs, a decrease in nitrogen lost to surrounding sources, or both.
There has been a study that found that organically fertilized fields "significantly reduce harmful nitrate leaching" over conventionally fertilized fields. Dredging helps in reduction of soil contamination that was caused by sewage sludge like fecal sludge , wilted plants, or chemical spill. Bokashi is a modern method of eutrophication prevention to decrease smell and toxic materials. After a few weeks, they would bury the waste.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Causes, Consequences, and Controls in Aquatic Ecosystems". Retrieved 10 March Nasir and Mohammad, F. Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University. Skulberg Chapter 1. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science , Vol. Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems".
Environmental pollution Barking, Essex: Eutrophication, Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D. A view from space". South African Journal of Science. A review of realities and challenges". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. Sitting on the Horns of a Dilemma: Water as a Strategic Resource in South Africa. In Liberty, No 6, Issue South African Institute of Race Relations. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.
Humans as components of ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2 April Science of the Total Environment. A profitable solution for Swedish society" PDF. An Ecosystem Services Approach. Effects on Plant Species Composition". The Journal of Applied Ecology. Present status and measures for sustainable agriculture". Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems.
An Integrated Approach to Eutrophication. International Environmental Technology Centre. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation. Department of Natural Resources, Maryland, U.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Defra Research Project IS Cranfield University and Defra. Retrieved 13 November Marine biology Marine chemistry Deep scattering layer Diel vertical migration Ecosystems large marine marine f -ratio Iron fertilization Marine snow Ocean nourishment Oceanic physical-biological process Ocean turbidity Photophore Thorson's rule Upwelling Whale fall More Acid rain Air quality index Atmospheric dispersion modeling Chlorofluorocarbon Indoor air quality Global dimming Global distillation Global warming Ozone depletion Atmospheric particulate matter Smog.
Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products Environmental impact of shipping Environmental monitoring Eutrophication Freshwater environmental quality parameters Groundwater pollution Hypoxia Marine debris Marine pollution Nutrient pollution Ocean acidification Oil spill Septic tank Surface runoff Thermal pollution Turbidity Urban runoff Wastewater Water quality Water stagnation Waterborne diseases.
Actinides in the environment Bioremediation of radioactive waste Environmental radioactivity Fission product Nuclear fallout Plutonium in the environment Radiation poisoning Radium in the environment Uranium in the environment. Land degradation Light pollution Pollution from nanomaterials Noise pollution Radio spectrum pollution Urban heat island Visual pollution.
Retrieved from " https: Water pollution Environmental chemistry Environmental issues with water Aquatic ecology. Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history. But, in the user survey about a thousand of you filled out a few weeks ago, many of you asked for me to take a step back, and do some videos targeted more towards those new to evidence-based nutrition.
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The two proposed components follow a BCC theory of change. Furthermore, the project will strengthen the enabling environment for GAFSP-funded FSAPP by rooting the project in very specific social contexts, distilling and aiming to address the multiple drivers of malnutrition. This will help ensure both acceptability of interventions among involved communities, sustainability of improved practices and potential for scaling-up.
Technical support to cross-sectoral work on nutrition the North East of India. The primary objectives of this task are to better understand the barriers to improved nutrition and health in North East India and to help state governments develop strategies and programs to address these issues. The program will identify gaps in maternal and child health and nutrition services for disadvantaged communities, and support development of cross-sectoral strategies to combat malnutrition at the community level.
This will be done through analytical work involving both primary and secondary data analysis to identify gaps and bottlenecks, informing the development of contextual and feasible strategies and technical assistance aimed at improving program design..
The objective of this grant is to produce estimates of the burden of malnutrition and disease for four states in India — Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Meghalaya — consistent with the estimates and methods used for the overall Global Burden of Disease GBD Project. GBD provides tools to quantify levels and trends of health loss due to diseases including malnutrition , injuries, and risk factors for countries from to Co-financed with the Gates Foundation, the SAFANSI-II project in India is to produce an essential tool for evidence-based nutrition and health policymaking and comparative metrics for different causes of premature death and disability.
In this phase, the project is to identify data and networks of collaborators and make preliminary estimates for the four states. The objective of SAFANSI-II project is to consolidate the work under SAFANSI-I, to further improve adaptive capacity, while improving the diagnosis of how market and government failures affect food security; supporting an experimentation-based approach to improve program design and implementation for FNS outcomes; taking the SO approach to new program interventions that aim to improve the functioning of the top-down public programs for food and nutrition security in India; and seeding a system of adaptive capacity to catalyze implementation for FNS outcomes in one new, nutrition focused programs in South Asia.
Thus far, SO has developed innovative tools and techniques, such as FNS participatory-tracking to improve the adaptive capacity of large-scale projects. The tools have helped substantially improve implementation of four targeted rural livelihoods projects in effectively addressing food and nutrition insecurity. SO has also collected primary data, including food prices paid by poor and rich. The team published 11 notes and reports related to Bihar and Tamil Nadu data collection thus far.
SO has measured the extent of differences in prices paid by the poor and rich, within the same village, for the same foods, demonstrated how an intervention can change gender norms in a highly patriarchal society, and developed an important new method to allow large numbers of citizens to measure and track their own progress on food and nutrition security related issues.
There also are 12 articles and briefs about SO on the Bank external websites, and 8 YouTube videos on methodologies and stakeholder interviews. More information is available at the Social Observatory Website. The project will support the state government in determining the overall strategy and design of a conditional cash transfer CCT program aimed at improving maternal and child health and nutrition practices and service utilization within the critical 1, day period.
It will draw on the implementation experience of CCT programs in India, including in Madhya Pradesh, as well as on lessons and best practice from international experience.
Technical support will also be provided for piloting the CCT program, through the development of systems required for implementation such as i systems for registration of beneficiaries and recording achievement of conditions, ii payment systems iii operational procedures and manuals iv communication and awareness generation v monitoring and evaluation systems vi strategies for inter-departmental coordination; and vii grievance redressal mechanisms.
While the state government is expected to finance and lead the implementation of the pilot, continued technical assistance will be provided by the Bank to ensure implementation and monitoring systems developed are working effectively. The project aims to increase household access to micronutrients and enhance the contribution of the dairy sector to improving food and nutrition security of these households in India.
The project development objective PDO of the impact evaluation is to estimate the causal effect of the Nutrition House Pilot Project in Tamil Nadu on nutrition indicators, and explore whether access to nutritious meals and services in the project areas result in increased nutrition outcomes. A key intervention will seek to prepare nutrient-dense snacks and foods out of goods that are easily perishable or underutilized and that, in some cases, would otherwise be wasted.
The transformation of the recovered food waste into nutrient-dense snacks and foods will take place at the Nutrition House, and will be prepared by beneficiaries students of the Chefs Certification Program. The Nutrition House will host a restaurant-school that will offer workshops on nutrition and the benefits of underutilized foods, as well as on traditional recipes. The pilot will benefit communities by addressing the issue of food loss and waste through innovation and technology while promoting safe and nutritious foods and services.
This program will support i the design of a strategy for the development of nutrition and sanitation social enterprises in Bihar; and ii provide technical assistance for implementation of the same, contributing to improving access of nutrition and sanitation products and services to households as part of the recently approved Bihar Transformative Development Project USD million in the state.
Parliamentarians and State Legislators for Collective Action. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of nutrition as a development issue among the Parliamentarians and State Legislators in India in order to seek all party solutions to increase public accountability on nutrition for better access to safe and nutritious food.
Success will be measured in terms of the number of Parliamentarians and State Legislators that are engaged in a collective action and commit to good nutrition through influencing public policy, programs, and institutional arrangements on food and nutrition in targeted areas.
The firm selection is on-going, and the data collection is expected to commence in September SHD IE is to assess, through a household survey, effectiveness of an innovative Rapid Results Approach RRA , by which communities are motivated to achieve a self-selected goal in day cycles on nutrition outcomes and community development.
Despite delays due to earthquake and fuel crisis, the mid-term IE completed data collection. The preliminary data analysis indicates moderate impact of the SHD intervention on some of the main indicators e. However, it is not clear how it relates to goal choice at village level , which will be further analyzed together with the SAFANSI-II financed qualitative survey see below.
The mid-term IE, together with the qualitative survey, is expected to influence policies and support SHD scale up. The objective of this grant is to improve the evidence base and understanding of the design and process of Sunaula Hazar Din SHD, Community Action for Nutrition Project at the community level. Paying special attention to gender and social inclusion perspectives e. Key research questions include how goals are selected at the community level; what roles coaches play in achieving goals; how having a female leader influences the RRA outcomes; how the communities perceive success and failure of the initiatives; and why certain groups succeed and others fail.
Given the mega-earthquake that hit the country in April , the study questions and methodologies will take into account the influence the earthquake might have had on the approach and intended outcomes. Prior to the earthquake, Nuwakot was categorized as minimally food insecure with a pre-existing global acute malnutrition prevalence of 9. However, after the earthquake, the district was classified as one of the most food insecure districts in Nepal, because agricultural production has been interfered by displacement of families, damage to land, and disruption of livelihood supply chains.
Adolescent nutrition in Pakistan: The objective of this work will be to provide concrete policy and program options to improve adolescent nutrition in Pakistan, based on evidence of the magnitude and distribution of nutrition problems, their determinants and potential factors that could facilitate or impede progress.
This project aims to improve the demand and uptake of health and nutrition services and promote key behaviors conducive to positive nutritional outcomes in Punjab pilot districts.
The technical support will ensure that the design parameters and processes meet the technical standards along the results chain. Sohail Saeed Abbasi and Yoonyoung Cho. This project will aim to establish a monitoring system for nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive public expenditure and embed it within the public financial management systems in Pakistan.
The project will work closely with the Controller General of Accounts, the institutional custodian of the public financial management system, to establish a system of tracking nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive expenditure. The overall development goal of this project is to strengthen the allocative and technical efficiencies for country-led planning, budgeting, and prioritization of nutrition interventions through health, nutrition, population, social protection, water, sanitation and hygiene WASH , education, and agriculture and rural development programs in up to 5 high-burden countries in South Asia i.
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka , and thereby enhance the impact of national and international investments. Second, it will develop options to address the challenges identified, make policy and programmatic recommendations and advocate for their adoption. The grant development objective of the INPARD program is to investigate whether a multi-sectoral rural development program can be utilized to deliver nutrition promotion intervention within rural Sri Lanka and whether this is effective in improving nutrition outcomes.
INPARD supported nutrition promotion activities implemented through multi-sectoral government stakeholders, including health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program. It is envisaged that the evaluation, composed of household survey and multi-stakeholder focus group discussions, is to build evidence to demonstrate linkages between health and nutrition outcomes and their upstream determinants, such as socioeconomic context, education, occupation, and income.
The team completed data collection, and data are being analyzed. The results will be shared at two regional workshops with multi-sectoral teams consisting of consists of stakeholders from health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program , amongst others , and presented at a South Asian Symposium later in Schmitt , Seenithamby Manoharan. Building Effective Nutrition Communication through Partnerships: The grant a creates an evidence based public policy dialogue via offline and online communication platforms on estate nutrition issues to lead to the development of an estate nutrition plan of action; and b develops a collaborative network of public, private and NGO partners engaged in advocacy, community mobilization and ICT to take forward the development and implementation of an estate nutrition plan of action.
Over the last decades, studies have shown that the estate nutrition status is lagging behind the rest of the country, despite many nutrition and health interventions.
In previous round , the SAFANSI-financed study has identified gaps in multi-sectoral approaches to nutrition interventions, suggesting improved knowledge and understanding of the multi-sectoral determinants of nutrition. This grant supports mapping of key stakeholders and pilot innovative communication outreach in Estate, using ICT and social media.
The project will assess whether a larger agriculture project could be integrated into multi-sectoral interventions and to improve the nutritional status of individual farmers, their families and communities. It will add a significant amount of new evidence in identifying challenges for the implementation of common interventions and possible solutions to address them.