Medieval cuisine

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It is a one-week jumpstart with specially created meals, all-brand new NutriCurb bars, the best-selling TurboShakes and all-new TurboBoosters. Two months after that they tried charging my credit card and claim they shipped product, which I didn't order. I did not realize I only had two weeks to cancel and much of that was mostly drinks. To add insult to injury, the obnoxious customer service person on the phone refused to accept my cancellation until she badgered me with questions and hard sell tactics in a desperate attempt to keep me buying their awful food. At best, cooking times could be specified as the time it took to say a certain number of prayers or how long it took to walk around a certain field. I specifically requested no chocolate. I got transferred around many times, and never had any help at all.

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Vegetarian Diet

Another common sight at the medieval dinner table was the frumenty , a thick wheat porridge often boiled in a meat broth and seasoned with spices. Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar. Pies filled with meats, eggs, vegetables, or fruit were common throughout Europe, as were turnovers , fritters , doughnuts , and many similar pastries. By the Late Middle Ages biscuits cookies in the U.

Grain, either as bread crumbs or flour, was also the most common thickener of soups and stews, alone or in combination with almond milk. The importance of bread as a daily staple meant that bakers played a crucial role in any medieval community.

Bread consumption was high in most of Western Europe by the 14th century. Estimates of bread consumption from different regions are fairly similar: Among the first town guilds to be organized were the bakers', and laws and regulations were passed to keep bread prices stable. The English Assize of Bread and Ale of listed extensive tables where the size, weight, and price of a loaf of bread were regulated in relation to grain prices.

The baker's profit margin stipulated in the tables was later increased through successful lobbying from the London Baker's Company by adding the cost of everything from firewood and salt to the baker's wife, house, and dog. Since bread was such a central part of the medieval diet, swindling by those who were trusted with supplying the precious commodity to the community was considered a serious offense.

Bakers who were caught tampering with weights or adulterating dough with less expensive ingredients could receive severe penalties. This gave rise to the " baker's dozen ": While grains were the primary constituent of most meals, vegetables such as cabbage , chard , onions , garlic and carrots were common foodstuffs. Many of these were eaten daily by peasants and workers and were less prestigious than meat.

The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient.

The lack of recipes for many basic vegetable dishes, such as potages , has been interpreted not to mean that they were absent from the meals of the nobility, but rather that they were considered so basic that they did not require recording.

Various legumes , like chickpeas , fava beans and field peas were also common and important sources of protein , especially among the lower classes. With the exception of peas, legumes were often viewed with some suspicion by the dietitians advising the upper class, partly because of their tendency to cause flatulence but also because they were associated with the coarse food of peasants.

The importance of vegetables to the common people is illustrated by accounts from 16th-century Germany stating that many peasants ate sauerkraut from three to four times a day. Fruit was popular and could be served fresh, dried, or preserved, and was a common ingredient in many cooked dishes. The fruits of choice in the south were lemons , citrons , bitter oranges the sweet type was not introduced until several hundred years later , pomegranates , quinces , and, of course, grapes.

Farther north, apples , pears , plums , and strawberries were more common. Figs and dates were eaten all over Europe, but remained rather expensive imports in the north.

Common and often basic ingredients in many modern European cuisines like potatoes , kidney beans , cacao , vanilla , tomatoes , chili peppers and maize were not available to Europeans until after , after European contact with the Americas, and even then it often took considerable time, sometimes several centuries, for the new foodstuffs to be accepted by society at large.

Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk from goats and sheep was also common. Plain fresh milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, and was usually reserved for the very young or elderly.

Poor adults would sometimes drink buttermilk or whey or milk that was soured or watered down. On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead.

Cheese was far more important as a foodstuff, especially for common people, and it has been suggested that it was, during many periods, the chief supplier of animal protein among the lower classes.

There were also whey cheeses , like ricotta , made from by-products of the production of harder cheeses. Cheese was used in cooking for pies and soups, the latter being common fare in German-speaking areas.

Butter , another important dairy product, was in popular use in the regions of Northern Europe that specialized in cattle production in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia.

While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its production also allowed for a lucrative butter export from the 12th century onward. While all forms of wild game were popular among those who could obtain it, most meat came from domestic animals. Domestic working animals that were no longer able to work were slaughtered but not particularly appetizing and therefore were less valued as meat.

Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. Mutton and lamb were fairly common, especially in areas with a sizeable wool industry, as was veal. Domestic pigs often ran freely even in towns and could be fed on just about any organic waste, and suckling pig was a sought-after delicacy.

Just about every part of the pig was eaten, including ears, snout, tail, tongue , and womb. Intestines, bladder and stomach could be used as casings for sausage or even illusion food such as giant eggs. Among the meats that today are rare or even considered inappropriate for human consumption are the hedgehog and porcupine , occasionally mentioned in late medieval recipe collections.

In England, they were deliberately introduced by the 13th century and their colonies were carefully protected. They were of particular value for monasteries, because newborn rabbits were allegedly declared fish or, at least, not-meat by the church and therefore they could be eaten during Lent. A wide range of birds were eaten, including swans , peafowl , quail , partridge , storks , cranes , larks , linnets and other songbirds that could be trapped in nets, and just about any other wild bird that could be hunted.

Swans and peafowl were domesticated to some extent, but were only eaten by the social elite, and more praised for their fine appearance as stunning entertainment dishes, entremets , than for their meat.

As today, geese and ducks had been domesticated but were not as popular as the chicken , the fowl equivalent of the pig. But at the Fourth Council of the Lateran , Pope Innocent III explicitly prohibited the eating of barnacle geese during Lent, arguing that they lived and fed like ducks and so were of the same nature as other birds.

Meats were more expensive than plant foods. Though rich in protein , the calorie -to-weight ratio of meat was less than that of plant food. Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread.

Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs.

It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people. The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased.

It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market. Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations.

Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople.

Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days.

Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common.

While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred. They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content.

Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated. Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers. The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine.

Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use. This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift. It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price.

In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey.

Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century.

Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down.

Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood. The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes.

The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication.

For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice. The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product.

Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem. Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.

Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar. These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré.

By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages.

In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups. For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts. Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities.

In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.

The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine. Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland. Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops.

In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras. That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions.

Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used. Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable. Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant.

Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier. Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh. Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world. For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4.

Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0. In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households. By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production. Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques.

These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century. Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages.

When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports. In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol.

By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired. One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1.

The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced.

Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates. Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits.

It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation.

Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians. In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth. By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy. Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century.

In the city of Nuremberg issued restrictions on the selling of aquavit on Sundays and official holidays. Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper , cinnamon and the cheaper alternative cassia , cumin , nutmeg , ginger and cloves.

They all had to be imported from plantations in Asia and Africa , which made them extremely expensive, and gave them social cachet such that pepper for example was hoarded, traded and conspicuously donated in the manner of gold bullion. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.

Sugar , unlike today, was considered to be a type of spice due to its high cost and humoral qualities. I was impressed with the interest and patience she posses.

I am now able to form a more comprehensive plan moving forward with my required personal participation with the Nutrisystem to reach my weight loss goal. I am enthusiastically encouraged with my decision to take on this venture for my future.

We are so happy to hear that Chanta was able to help you gain a better understanding of the program! For more information about reviews on ConsumerAffairs. My NuMi bottle issue was already taken care of. He therefore missed the window to order the bottle in time for the 2nd month shipment. We would like to have it delivered with the order that is coming up for the 3rd month - we get auto delivery, so it is already set up.

We are happy to hear that your water bottle issue has been handled but are sad to hear that your husband is still having issues. We will be assigning this to a member of the Consumer Experience Team who will be reaching out soon. I am very disappointed with the food. Most of it tastes the same to me and actually upsets my stomach. I did not realize I only had two weeks to cancel and much of that was mostly drinks. Then you keep trying different food thinking something will be edible.

I know there is plenty of fine print in contracts that should be read. I do not recall being verbally told about these conditions. This was a lesson that left a very bad taste in my mouth. We are sorry that the foods upset your stomach and that you were unaware of the auto-delivery nature of the program. Not clear when I ordered that it would be on automatic order. Food is not good, not good instructions, dinners were bland. Too many entrees with spicy tomato sauce and cheese, dinners are bland.

Shakes made me sick. Emails were only to sell more. Thank you for writing this review. We are sad to hear the foods were not to your liking and that the deliveries would be automatic. We will be looking into your account and reaching out soon.

This is a follow-up to the review I posted on September 5. Soon after I posted my first review, a rep from Nutrisystem contacted me via email. The email was courteous, professional, and apologetic for the experience I had. The rep went on to offer replacement of the damaged food items I had received and encouraged me to give their company another try.

In light of this swift response and their sincere desire to ensure that I was happy with their product and service, I am revising my review. I accepted a ready-made menu that containing some items that I did not enjoy. In the future, I will make a point to select food items that I now know to be more to my liking than others. I am very pleased and heartened by Nutrisystem's timely reply and concern for my purchase. They deserve a second chance.

I ordered my month's supply of diet food from Nutrisystem with high hopes. When the food shipment arrived, most of the frozen breakfast items were broken into small bits; when I opened the packages, the bits fell out. Then I tried the frozen lunches. Since I take these to work, the only heating option is microwave. Anything with bread or chicken comes out chewy, gooey, and icy cold in the center.

It actually made me gag and lose my appetite, which wasn't the diet plan I expected. I am very careful when reading agreements, and for this item to be overlooked was no easy feat.

Fineprint at the end will do that to you. To add insult to injury, the obnoxious customer service person on the phone refused to accept my cancellation until she badgered me with questions and hard sell tactics in a desperate attempt to keep me buying their awful food. Overall, this was a horrible experience. I will never use or recommend Nutrisystem again. We are so sorry to hear about your poor experience with the delivery of your foods, the food itself, and the representative you dealt with.

We will be taking a peek at your account and reaching out soon. Was not satisfied with the taste of most of the foods, had to throw it away and buy something else, and most of the desserts had an ok flavor, And a lot of meals with cheese. I was not happy with that. My first order included items I didn't order and one that I'm allergic to its ingredients. I was told by one person the items were probably substitutions and when ready they would be replaced.

When I called the customer service lady was very rude, basically stated I was lying and wouldn't allow me to speak to a supervisor. I'm very disappointed with the service I receive so I will take my business to a place that has better customer service. Went thru a few months of products. Following it closely and exercised Sent email to customer support and I was told to think of it as not wasted but I received nutritional food with fiber Now I know why it only got one star.

Weight loss system worksstale product and no one to answer to except counselors with no control. I emailed three correspondences to FIVE different departments only to receive a notice that they don't reply to emails because they were too busy. I also included to them pictures of the moldy carrot cake, along with the packaging that states the date is still okay. The oatmeal is so stale it sticks to the side of the package and had to pour hot water in the bag to get the product out.

Chocolate covered pretzels are stale. We did call and the rep was very nice and stated that she couldn't do anything except replace our stale food. How many packages were bad? I honestly didn't count how many items I threw awayat their prices ANY wasted product is too many! Doesn't anyone there want to see a photo of the stale food? Does anyone there care?

VERY poor about keeping the customer happy, however, are not timid about selling you the program. Shame on you, Nutrisystem. We are sorry to hear about the spoiled and stale items you received. We will be reviewing your account and reaching out soon. I am not sure why in today's time of electronics that it takes so long to get the information. We are sorry to hear that it took you so long to receive the information you needed for the program.

We will be reaching out shortly. Pleased with the conversation with my counselor. I feel I have a better handle on what I should be doing. I am looking forward to losing the weight I have set my goal for. Thank you very much for your help. We are happy to hear that you feel like you understand the program better after speaking with one of our counselors. Please let us know if there is anything else we can do to help!

I wrote in with a few complaints about some of the food I received; some broken food, bags not sealed and crushed muffins. Allison was very helpful and courteous and was able to change my mood. Thank you Allison for being pleasant and helpful. Thank you for the kind words!

We will be sure to pass this compliment onto Allison. Keep up the excellent work on the program, Chris! I didn't know this when I originally call to cancel my account. Not that I like it, I understand that it was to be paid now.

I was on hold for several minutes and when he finally came back he proceeded to tell me that his supervisor was at lunch and would called me back when she returned, "Oh and by the way here's your confirmation for your cancellation". At that time I received an email from my PayPal account, advising me that I just made a payment to Nutrisystem.

The man had the nerve to charge my account while he had me on hold. I have called every day, each rep has told me what he did was ok. This is so sad, that he could do this behind my back and it be ok. My call is being reviewed now sure it is but, we all know how this is going to end. I will continue to call each day until I get a callback.

He knew what he was doing was wrong, why else would he have to sneak and charge me. I want an apology and someone to tell me what he did was wrong! If I were Marie Osmond, I wouldn't want to be known as a spokesperson for a company that has such bad reviews. BBB alone has 99 bad reviews and I am getting ready to add another. I guess that wasn't necessary to be said. We are sad to hear about the way you were treated when calling.

This is NOT okay. After the 3rd call to NutriSystem about a late order, Beth finally came online and made a return customer — yet again — out of me. We are so happy to hear that Beth was able to straighten things out for you. We wish you continued success on and off the program. Rachel was very helpful in helping me to better understand my needs while on the plan and I am very thankful for her professionalism. So far I am enjoying being on Nutrisystem.

All of the food does taste very good. The only negative thing is that when I first order they did not tell me that there was so much chocolate in the turbo box. I specifically requested no chocolate. When I was on this diet, I found this feature extremely helpful! This weight loss plan has the best variety and one of the biggest selections of menu options.

Choose from over foods. To help you out I will list a few of my personal favorites. Okay for breakfast I loved the double chocolate muffin. Be sure to put this in the microwave for a few seconds. Trust you will be happy you did. Also liked the buttermilk waffles, the thick french toast and granola bars worked well on the run.

For lunch I like their pizzas, the pepperoni pizza melts and again the granola bars for when I am on the go. Preparing these foods is very easy. A microwave is a great tool and fast time saver on this diet. I was surprisingly impressed with the chicken parm dinner. Truly one of my favorites and I would order a few with each delivery.

Also with this pizza, I was pleasantly surprised with the flavor. Thank goodness diets have come a long way. No need to choke down poor tasting foods and shakes. Because now you can eat real tasting foods that you are sure to love.

It may not even feel like you are on a diet. Nutrisystem is quite easy to follow and very convenient. People on the go with busy lifestyles will find this weight loss program very convenient.

They have such a wide variety of foods you are sure to find many of their meals to be delicious.

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