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What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
One side effect of intense exercise is increased levels of dopamine , serotonin , and norepinephrine , which can help to improve mood and counter feelings of depression It should be noted that dopamine and serotonin were not found to be increased by resistance training. My Mom had asthma years ago and I found this stuff by a company called Bioforce, called Asmathan. Secondly, if you've ever used a nebulizer you'll notice that the vapor solution that you inhale is also cool until you breath out obviously the exhaled air from your body will be warm and look like steam. I started upping my intake of RX3 during a particular busy travel schedule. January 28, at 2: What should I do if anything?

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Eckert instead released a shorter revised summary, and his and therefore FIFA's reluctance to publish the full report caused Garcia to resign in protest.

Of the 32 nations qualified to play at the FIFA World Cup, 20 countries competed at the previous tournament in Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the smallest country in terms of population to reach the World Cup.

Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in ; Morocco, who last competed in ; Peru, returning after ; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions Italy for the first time since , three-time runners-up and third placed in the Netherlands for the first time since , and four reigning continental champions: The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for Ghana and Ivory Coast , who had both made the previous three tournaments.

The draw was held on 1 December at Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia who were automatically assigned to position A1 and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4.

However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group. Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February , this was increased to Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad.

For players named in the player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May , except for those involved in the UEFA Champions League Final played on 26 May.

On 29 March , FIFA released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees. VAR had a significant impact in several games. Russia proposed the following host cities: The bid evaluation report stated: Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed.

In October , Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.

The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Sepp Blatter stated in July that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa , where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".

They were satisfied with the progress. Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium — the two largest stadiums in Russia — were used most, both hosting seven matches.

Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of match each. Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games.

Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway. Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems.

Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre Accor Hotels and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk Starwood Hotels as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities.

The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals. Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.

The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July without kick-off times, which were confirmed later. Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia , the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw. The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July.

The opening ceremony took place on Thursday, 14 June , at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, preceding the opening match of the tournament between hosts Russia and Saudi Arabia.

Former Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo walked out with a child wearing a Russia shirt. English pop singer Robbie Williams then performed two songs before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet while other performers emerged, dressed in the flags of all 32 teams and carrying a sign bearing the name of each nation.

Dancers were also present. Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams groups A to H. Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico. For the first time since , Germany reigning champions did not advance past the first round.

For the first time since , no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless.

Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored. All times listed below are local time. The ranking of teams in the group stage was determined as follows: In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played two periods of 15 minutes each and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.

If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament.

Twelve own goals were scored during the tournament, doubling the record of six set in In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences: The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament. The award was sponsored by Hyundai. FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data. Prize money amounts were announced in October The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme.

Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country. The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October , and selected through a design competition among university students.

A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. A fasting BG of is not that bad. It could be lower. A good way to monitor your overall average eAG is taking As long as your A1C is under 6 you are doing well.

But if your A1C is 5. Thanks for your information. What kind of target would you aim for? I am still trying to lose weight and manage my PCOS.

Should I restrict my carbs even more? Be sure to work with your own personal physician. I might get a gram oral glucose tolerance test after three days of eating at least g of digestible carbs daily. An exercise program with both aerobic and resistance training components may help reduce after-meal blood sugar levels. This is some very helpful information, thank you! I also take Prometrium 12 days out of the month I am obese and have been taking losing weight very seriously.

I have noticed a slight trend where my fasting was It has never been that high , and then two hours after breakfast it will be around I was sure to retest each time to see if I had a faulty test, and they were correct. Have you had cases where diet and excercise have altered blood sugar like this? I have a doctors appointment on the 15th, but I would appreciate any input or advice you could give. But I do have a few comments. Insulin helps to keep blood sugar levels from rising too high. For mostly mysterious reasons, some livers work more effectively to deactivate insulin in the early morning hours.

Deactivation of insulin would allow blood sugars to rise, particularly fasting early AM levels. An exercise program can help. Also eating relatively fewer carbs with the evening meal might help, moving those to earlier in the day, say lunchtime.

There are a few other tricks, too. The dawn phenomenon effect may last till mid- or late-morning for some folks. Richard Bernstein recommends eating ony 6 g of digestible carb for breakfast, and 12 g for both lunch and dinner. Check in with your personal physician. I am 61 male, my fasting suger to , random is perfact below what should i do to control it? I have a Ac1 level of 5. I am 30 years old, have not been active for 6 months but am willing to restart today my training.

Blood glucose after 5 hrs. Then, my sugar readings were: Would I be considered a pre-diabetic? There are some diabetes and heart issues in the family history.

Good to hear from you, blogger You better check in with your personal physician for an accurate diagnosis. I am not diabetic. I have gotten many blood tests done, including the glucose tolerance test to see how my sugar levels change. The lab work has come out normal, which is good. But why am I still sometimes feeling weak or shaky? Over 20 common conditions can cause weakness and shakiness. Keep working with your personal physician to get to the bottom of it.

I am a 65 year old male who is ytpe 2. I am on Amaryl and do not test. My personal doctor of 25 years checks AIC every 3 months. Has ranged from 6. My fasting sugar was and I am scared especially after reading Mark Hymans book. I am 20 lbs overweight and have HBP and I do exercise regularly and count carbs. Should I see a specialist? I also take Simvistatin and my cholesteol is borderline. Should I try Medt.

I have same MD for 25 years. No family history and my parents lived to 90 and I plan to buy your book. Also why is eating cheese an issue. I have basically cut out pizza, rice and pasta-maybe once or twice a month for the latter 2 and I do not like sweets. Please read my Post, down below.

Also Simvastatin daily for 20 years. Weight kg for 20 years. My Fasting Blood Sugar Level hovers around 4. This morning, my BS level was 4. Tested 3,5 hours later, my BS level was 6. Drink Red Wine with meals. Plain Yoghurt without any fruit with Bees Honey. But avoid biscuits, cakes and sugary pasties. Then refrigerate to cool. Drink several cups a day, and the last cup before bedtime.

There are some natural food supplements that can help improve low blood pressure like Licorice. Remember to look out for this useful web portal http: I have just been diagnosed with type 2 and am trying to get a handle on my blood sugar levels through testing periodically per my doctors instructions.

I have been ranging before meals 90 to Two housrs after meals I range between and First thing in the morning I range from 90 to I am dieting and exercising.

Am I wrong or are these good numbers? I am 66, have lost 10 Lbs in the last month since I began testing. She has not put him on any oral hypoglycemics and is going to check his labs in 3 months. She told him to exercise and loose 20 lbs. Is he diabetic or pre-diabetic? Treatment approach to prediabetes and mild type 2 diabetes would be pretty much the same.

I am 74 and have been a type 2 diabetic for some 20 years. I take a variety of pills and my average A1C is always over 7 but less than 8. After I eat, a couple of hours later, it is around I have had several surgeries in my stomach area and I think this might be a problem. Thanks for the reply. I was just wondering if you thought all the stomach surgeries I have had were causing me part of my problem.

I can keep my blood sugar in check, although I had been having a real hard time the past six months or so. I would hit the sack with a blood sugar around , and wake up with it around or so. With some Internet research I learned that sleep deprivation does impact blood sugar. I had been napping on my break from work between 2pm and 5pm.

This is very helpful blog post and useful to see all the thresholds and targets in one place. My hbA1C was at 6. Here is the difficulty that I have with the hbA1C 6. My numbers were in the prediabetic range and equal to lower end of the hbA1C target that you set though admittedly my fasting glucose was higher. Yet, I suffered many symptoms of diabetes, including peripheral neuropathy, obesity, fatigue after meals, dry mouth, tendonitis, arthritis and diabetic dermopathy shin spots.

Thus, I feel it is essential to set a much more rigorous target for myself than you do for your patients. Since going on a low carb diet, some of the symptoms have mostly disappeared—notably the more classic diabetic symptoms—peripheral neuropathy, obesity down 35 lbs , and arthritis. Hi my name is Dee, I am a type 1 diabetic. My numbers are between and over night. I am suppose to be taking insulin 40g twice a day just before my meal.

Now when I just excersize after meals my numbers drop in a normal range. Also my age is What could the problem be? It would not be safe for me to give personal medical advice over the Internet. I bet your regular doctor has some ideas. Thanks for the website. It clears up a lot of things my doctor has been trying to explain. Will be bookmarking this and will return often to visit. Another thing is it better to exercise one hour after meal or two hours? Hussain, is too high.

Ease off on the carbs. I feel tiered and dizzy. I am 26 years old. My height is cm but I weigh 88 kg. I have been self monitoring my blood sugar on and off though I have never visited doctor. I do so because my dad is also suffering from diabetic type 2. My CBG levels always come in the range Should I be concerned?? I have one problem too. I am living a sedentary lifestyle as I am busy in studies.

What about getting a lower A1C without medication? I am a 61 year old male. In March , I had an A1c of 6. It is now 5. I did it with low carb, whole food, no sugar diet with 5 to 7 hours a week of exercise… no medication! Have a friend with even more dramatic results after sharing with him what I was able to do. He had an A1c of 10! First 4 months he used medication, then went with diet and exercise alone and got much better results after only one week on Newcastle protocol with no medication.

Blaine, thanks for your inspirational comments. I have no direct knowledge of how much influence the pharmaceutical industry has over the guideline developers. Clearly, using drugs instead of diet to control blood sugars benefits the drug sellers. The societal move to better diet and away from drugs esp. At age 68, Dr says my fasting glucose level of and 4 months later, need to be reduced. Where do I find out which foods may make my glucose rise 10 pts?

A glass of wine raises it how much? A potato or spaghetti for dinner — not much, of course, to keep my weight down. Madlyn, the only way to see how different foods affect your particular blood sugar would be to get a home glucose meter and check it hours after a meal.

Even the huge machines in labs may not be that accurate. The a home meter makes more sense. I am taking my meds everyday and exercise daily Metformin Everyday im doing my exercise in threadmill for one hour and mention there that i burned calories.. I am male,69 years old. My latest fasting plasma glucose some days ago was 5. I did not ask for any hba1c to accompany it.

Six months ago,however, my fasting plasma glucose was less at 4. Both tests were done by reliable hospital lab. Am i prediabetic or insulin-resistant in your view,judging from these numbers? Might be helpful to check a serum glucose 2 hours after a 75 gram oral glucose load. Or just check another fasting glucose and HgbA1c in six months. If any of this contradicts your personal physician, go with his ideas. He knows the full details of your situation.

No way I can say if you have insulin resistance. If your body mass index is over 30, odds are about 7 in 10 that you are resistance. Lillian I just took my glucose reading and it has me concerned. My reading was E I have never seen this before. What does this mean?

What should I do if anything? Contact your doctor with those questions. My 14 yr old son, who we tested twice, during a biology exercise, showed a 49 reading on my blood glucose meter. A walk in clinic dr. Said it was normal for teens blood to dip down to such a low level.

I havent found info. To support his claim. As long as he was feeling fine at 49, it may be nothing to worry about. I do know that some athletes during heavy exertion will dip below 50 and never know it. I wanted to know is if 76 was too low for a diabetic. It only told me averages. My nurse practioner says it is. Thanks I do injoy the info you have for someone my age. My brother was recently diangosed with type 2 diabetes and already has neouropy in his feet.

Does this mean he has had this for a long time? Also should he seek out a diabetec dr. Or will a general practitioner do as well? The dr didnt help with diet , just gave him some melformin and said come back in 3 months, very frustrating!!!!

Many diabetics already have neuropathy or other complications at the time of diagnosis. Many, but not all, general practitioners are well-equipped to treat T2 diabetes. Simply prescribing metformin without doing anything else for a brand-new diabetic is inadequate. I was eating the SAD so after 3 months following the paleo diet I can say I rarely have an hypoglycemic episode.

It started getting better and better. Well suffering from RH for more than a year certaintly caused me cortisol dysregulation as well and adrenal issues so I would like to know what is happening now is cause for concern or I should ignore it. My fasting blood sugar used to be 70 and now is always What I mean is if I eat a meal the pattern is for eg: When I wake up around 8.

Why does this happen? Should I be concern about any of these new facts or is everything finally ok? Sorry for bothering and thank you for your help. I like your recent blood sugar results. Be sure to share them with your personal physician.

Your English is good! She has a good majority of the symptoms and I have been checking her. Her levels barely get over a hundred, the lowest fasting she has had is 68 and the highest is Any info would be appreciated.

She does have an appointment on the 28th. Thank you for your time. I bet for kids between 6 and 18, the normal range is quite similar to adults. Keep that appointment with her doctor. My husband has reactive hypoglycemia and has developed diabetic shin spots, the kind that are red, scaly and indented. I knew diabetics got them but have you ever seen someone with reactive hypoglycemia develop them?

It makes me wonder if diabetic shin spots can be due to insulin spikes rather than sugar spikes. Which are conditions of both hyper and hypoglycemics, right? I had scabby shin spots for a couple of summers. My fasting glucose and Hba1c was in the prediabetic range. Roller coaster blood sugars even if not in the diabetic range can be sign of carbohydrate intolerance, and the result can be symptoms typical of diabetes. I also had peripheral neuropathy. If this is correct can he expect other complications associated with diabetes?

I have read that uncontrolled reactive hypoglycemia can be a precursor to insulin resistance. Fortunately, he is taking his condition seriously, by avoiding carbs and not skipping meals he has managed to control the extreme fluctuations.

He feels much better and has lost 20 of the 30 extra pounds he has been carrying around for the last few years. I passed the 3 hour glucose test my third hour was slightly elevated but they said I passed. Testing for a week just in case. Fasting has to be between and one hour post meals have to be under How many high readings would you consider someone to have GD? What if the high readings are only after breakfast? My breakfast ranges from , fasting is 90 or below, and other meals are or below.

My fasting blood sugar level is between 4. I have had cardiac surgery, and have high blood pressure. I am 72 years old. Olan, I never worry about metformin causing kidney stones.

Must be rare if happens at all. I have been a diabetic for 15 years and 62 yrs. Started as Type 2 and transitioned to Type 1 a few years ago. Not overweight and no family history. My AIC has been in the 7. I am experiencing signs of peripheral neuropathy but also had two peroneal nerve entrapments that have been repaired and spinal stenosis which has not been treated.

Yes, the calf pain and ankle weakness could be from peripheral neuropathy or spinal stenosis, among other possibilities. Work with your doctor on those; see a neurologist if needed for clarification. I had debilitating peripheral neuropathy with an hbA1C of 6.

When I went on a low carb diet, it got much better. Now I am doing Wahls Protocol to help the nerves grow back. I thought it might be helpful for them if I did that. All my research kept pointing to diabetes, which I thought was impossible given my physical state and the lack of diabetes in my family, but to be on the safe side, I bought a blood sugar monitor and gathered the below results:. Fasting bs level — 59 1 hour after a bagel — 2 hours after the bagel — 3 hours after the bagel — 70 1 hour after lunch — Are these normal levels?

My Dad is a doctor, and he said that is a bit high. I woke up checked my fasting blood sugar and it was I consumed 4 glucose tablets because I felt shaky. I checked it again and it was ! I wonder if something else was causing the shakes. Hi, Myself 29yrs old female, yesterday I had a check for blood glucose as prescribed by my physician, the results are as follows:.

I already had thyroid issues for a few years and have had inflammatory bowel disease since teenager, 48 now. During a workup to try to get to the bottom of symptoms, my endocrinologist did a GAD antibody test on me. Mine was positive, but my blood sugars were not extreme. Fasting 82 to My doctor says the GAD test is usually indicative of autoimmune diabetes like type one, and that I am most likely heading that direction.

As of now according to the ADA I am not diabetic. Is it true that a positive GAD test means I will be insulin dependent diabetic?

When I try to ask my endo he tells me not to stress over it it may happen or it may not. I am getting mixed messages. And is a type one kind of diabetes more insidious in its arrival? Father had diabetes, told it was type two, but he was never able to control it, passed away from massive heart attack. Could he have been type one, and would that be where I get it from?

I agree with your endocrinologist. Type 2 is usually much more insidious that T1. Pease help, my mom is 73 and less then a month ago she was hospitalized with a blood sugar level of 40 and stroke like symptoms. She should see a doctor in-person as soon as possible. My blood glucose always was normal in the past. My doctor sent me to do A1c test because I have relative with type 2 diabetes. After I had been diagnosed as prediabetic condition, I started to check my fasting blood glucose every morning and never had it higher then 90mg.

I am 63 years old and do not have any symptoms so far. I am skinny, I do exercise four times a week and eat healthy food. I took nutrition classes two years ago. After three month I went to recheck my A1c and it become 5. Do you have any suggestion what I have to do to stop it climbing? A change in HgbA1c from 5. In other words, they could draw your blood from a right elbow vein and left elbow vein at the same time, immediately run it throughout the chemistry machine, and get readings of 5.

I just got home from work and I checked my glucose level and it was If your glucose meter is accurate, those numbers indicate you may have transitioned to diabetes. Hi Dr Steve, last May and just yesterday, my fasting blood sugar result is 5. Does this mean i am diabetic? Hope to hear from you thank you. It makes me wonder if you are having diabetic-range blood sugars after meals, or other fasting blood sugars higher than 5.

Hi Dr Steve, my doctor advised to retake hba1c as she is doubtful of the result. The advised to take the test in the main hospital rather than on their satellite clinic. The result came out 5. My 95 year old father was a type II diabetic staying in a nursing home that failed and would not let him take a finger stick or any other kind of blood glucose test for 3 months.

When they finally did blood work, his glucose was It was tested again by the lab and confirmed. Have you ever heard of a number this high? What are the implications of a number this high and could it develop overnight? A value of could develop overnight in a type 2 diabetic, but usually not unless there is some other medical problem going on, such as an infection or dehydration or corticosteroid drug therapy.

Type 1 diabetics commonly can have glucose values shoot up that high over the short-term. Most folks with glucose of are going to be and feel sick. He declined admission to hospital. I am a visiting nurse. What are we saving him for? And this is what we do. I am 61 years old and has always been healthy. This weekend we were binging on some chocholate, maybe 7 or eight assorted chocholates with coffee or tea.

After the chocholate excursion I felt sleepy and went to sleep. The next morning I felt incredibly tired and thought that I should test my blood sugar my mom was a diabetic the reading was On Tuesday Morning I tested it again and my bloodsugar reading was 12,8. Tuesday morning we hd our normal breakfast of 2 eggs, 2 rashers of bacon and 3 slices of tomatoes. For lunch I ate nothing and had just fruit 3 apricots an apple and 2 prunes for supper. I was feeling fine but not hungry at all.

THis morning I tested my bloodsugar again and the reading was 15,9. I must mention that I was at the gym yesterday and was working in the garden picking up bricks.

Why would my bloodsugar all of a sudden go up like that. Be sure to check in with your personal physician. See your doc soon. Hi Everybody, I am not a doctor, but this is what some doctors say: The Low carb diet can help.

That was December 10th I have now lost 35 lbs and I eat and drink right. I have control of them and I have been able to keep my sugar where it need a to be.

Diet and exercise is VERY important and totally worth living another day. Should I be concerned? I m 72 and I am about 25lbs overweight. I have been Pre-diabetic for years. I find the portable glucose machines faulty. I have tried many, and I have taken test after test and the numbers are all over the place.

From , one minute to then next and so on! I also read where the Diabetes Foundation stated for doctors not to rely completely on the A1c. The other problems I have: Years ago — I believe the number was OK at Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43 5 , Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training.

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Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Annals of Neurology, 48 5 , Creatine-enhanced diet alters levels of lactate and free fatty acids after experimental brain injury. Neurochemical Research, 29 2 , Prevention of complications related to traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents with creatine administration: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 61 2 , Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration.

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Nothing fancy, just the stuff you need. Athlean-Rx XLR8 contains an impressive 30g of protein per serving! Conservative recommendations for an athlete are around 1. If you have a busy schedule that can be a daunting task. We have tens of thousands of members of team athlean who have gotten great results from incorporating XLR8 into their nutrition plan. I use XLR8 as a post workout supplement or a meal replacement.

Kre-Alkalyn is a buffered form of creatine that is processed at a higher PH level than the more acidic creatine monohydrate form. The more acidic the creatine, the more likely it is to chemically be converted into creatinine…the unusable byproduct. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance.

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