Here’s the Clean 15 List of Fruits and Veggies For 2018
This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. Boston Globe, January Department of Agriculture and the U. Specific polyphenols have been shown to have antioxidant properties and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, according to a report in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The lists in the diet section provide nutritional content for a variety of vegetables and fruits. Meet Danielle Dewar of Backing Backwards!
The low carb vegetable list
The antioxidants in the oil and the vegetables get used up during frying in stabilizing the cycle of oxidation. Another study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in showed that cooking carrots increases their level of beta-carotene. Beta-carotene belongs to a group of antioxidant substances called carotenoids, which give fruits and vegetables their red, yellow, and orange colorings.
The body converts beta-carotene into vitamin A, which plays an important role in vision, reproduction, bone growth and regulating the immune system. The downside of cooking veggies, Liu says: He found that vitamin C levels declined by 10 percent in tomatoes cooked for two minutes—and 29 percent in tomatoes that were cooked for half an hour at The reason is that Vitamin C, which is highly unstable, is easily degraded through oxidation, exposure to heat it can increase the rate at which vitamin C reacts with oxygen in the air and through cooking in water it dissolves in water.
Liu notes, however, that the trade-off may be worth it since vitamin C is prevalent in far more fruits and vegetables than is lycopene. Besides, cooked vegetables retain some of their vitamin C content. That said, research shows that some veggies, including broccoli, are healthier raw rather than cooked. According to a study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in November , heat damages the enzyme myrosinase, which breaks down glucosinates compounds derived from glucose and an amino acid in broccoli into a compound known as sulforaphane.
Research published in the journal Carcinogenesis in December found that sulforaphane might block the proliferation of and kill precancerous cells. A study in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences also found that sulforaphane may help fight the bacterium Helicobacter pylori , which causes ulcers and increases a person's risk of stomach cancer. On the other hand, indole, an organic compound, is formed when certain plants, particularly cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage, are cooked.
According to research in The Journal of Nutrition in , indole helps kill precancerous cells before they turn malignant.
And while boiling carrots was found to increase carotenoid levels, another study found that it leads to a total loss of polyphenols, a group of chemicals found in raw carrots. Specific polyphenols have been shown to have antioxidant properties and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, according to a report in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Comparing the healthfulness of raw and cooked food is complicated, and there are still many mysteries surrounding how the different molecules in plants interact with the human body. The bottom line, says Liu, is to eat your veggies and fruits no matter how they're prepared. Sushma Subramanian is a freelance science writer and an assistant professor of journalism at the University of Mary Washington.
So before you hit the grocery store, see how some of your favorite fruits and veggies measured up. Did one of your favorites make the list? Celery This stalky vegetable tops the dirty list. Research showed that a single celery stalk had 13 pesticides, while, on the whole, celery contained as many as 67 pesticides.
Chemicals fester on this vegetable as it has no protective skin and its stems cup inward, making it difficult to wash the entire surface of the stalk. Peaches Peaches are laced with 67 different chemicals, placing it second on the Dirty Dozen list of most contaminated fruits and vegetables. They have soft fuzzy skin, a delicate structure, and high susceptibility to most pests, causing them to sprayed more frequently. Strawberries This red, juicy fruit has a soft, seedy skin, allowing easier absorption of pesticides.
Research showed that strawberries contained 53 pesticides. Apples Apples are high-maintenance fruit, needing many pesticides to stave off mold, pests, and diseases.
Blueberries domestic These antioxidant-rich berries have a thin layer of skin that allows chemicals to more easily contaminate the fruit. Domestic blueberries were loaded with 13 pesticides on a single sample, according to the EWG. Imported blueberries also made the list at No. Sweet bell pepper This crunchy, yet thin-skinned, vegetable is highly susceptible to pesticides. According to the EWG, sweet bell peppers showed traces of 63 types of pesticides.
While some pesticides can be washed away, many still remain. Spinach, kale, collard greens These leafy green vegetables are on the Dirty Dozen list, with spinach loaded with 45 different kinds of pesticides and kale In , Dole recalled bagged baby spinach after multiple E.