In COPD, serum adiponectin is increased and directly relates to disease severity and lung function decline [ ]. Vitamin D deficiency and the lung: Oxidative stress, chromatin remodeling and gene transcription in inflammation and chronic lung diseases. The link between obesity and asthma in women? Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources or supplementation; however sun exposure is the main contributor to vitamin D levels [ ]. Adiponectin-deficient mice are protected against tobacco-induced inflammation and increased emphysema.
Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well. The epithelium of the nasal passages, for example, is essential to sensing odors, and the bronchial epithelium that lines the lungs can metabolize some airborne carcinogens. The conducting zone includes the nose and its adjacent structures, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, and the bronchi. In contrast to the conducting zone, the respiratory zone includes structures that are directly involved in gas exchange.
The respiratory zone begins where the terminal bronchioles join a respiratory bronchiole, the smallest type of bronchiole Figure 2. Bronchioles lead to alveolar sacs in the respiratory zone, where gas exchange occurs. An alveolar duct is a tube composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue, which opens into a cluster of alveoli. An alveolus is one of the many small, grape-like sacs that are attached to the alveolar ducts. An alveolar sac is a cluster of many individual alveoli that are responsible for gas exchange.
Alveoli are connected to their neighbors by alveolar pores, which help maintain equal air pressure throughout the alveoli and lung. Figure B is an enlarged view of the airways, alveoli air sacs , and capillaries tiny blood vessels. Figure C is a close-up view of gas exchange between the capillaries and alveoli.
CO2 is carbon dioxide, and O2 is oxygen. A major organ of the respiratory system, each lung houses structures of both the conducting and respiratory zones. The main function of the lungs is to perform the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with air from the atmosphere. To this end, the lungs exchange respiratory gases across a very large epithelial surface area—about 70 square meters—that is highly permeable to gases.
The lungs are pyramid-shaped, paired organs that are connected to the trachea by the right and left bronchi; below the lungs is the diaphragm, a flat, dome-shaped muscle located at the base of the lungs and thoracic cavity.
Each lung is composed of smaller units called lobes. Fissures separate these lobes from each other. The right lung consists of three lobes: The left lung consists of two lobes: Here are 10 less-known facts that will keep you from yawning! For more comprehensive material about body systems, geared toward 3rd and 4th graders, check out our "All About Me" program. Gasp-worthy Facts about the Respiratory System.
Fun Facts about the Respiratory System! Hairs in the nose help clean and warm the air we breathe. Women and children breathe at a faster rate than men. The surface area of the lungs is roughly the same size as a tennis court! If all the alveoli in both lungs were flattened out, they would have a total area of about square feet!
We lose about 12 oz of water of water a day through breathing. In addition to exhaling carbon dioxide, you also exhale water.