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The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. Other examples of malabsorption include defects of pancreatic secretion that result in maldigestion. At the inferior end of the esophagus is a muscular ring called the lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter. Atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles. The walls of the acini surround a small central cavity known as an alveolus.
It is made up of the cecum, the ascending right colon, the transverse across colon, the descending left colon, and the sigmoid colon so-called for its "S" shape; the Greek letter for S is called the sigma , which connects to the rectum. Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis contractions , first in a liquid state and ultimately in solid form as the water is removed from the stool.
A stool is stored in the sigmoid colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum once or twice a day. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins , processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria. When the descending colon becomes full of stool, or feces, it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination.
The rectum Latin for "straight" is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let you know there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens.
When anything gas or stool comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters muscles relax and the rectum contracts, expelling its contents. If the contents cannot be expelled, the sphincters contract and the rectum accommodates, so that the sensation temporarily goes away.
The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It consists of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters internal and external muscles. The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets us know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to.
The anal sphincters provide fine control of stool. The internal sphincter keeps us from going to the bathroom when we are asleep, or otherwise unaware of the presence of stool. When we get an urge to go to the bathroom, we rely on our external sphincter to keep the stool in until we can get to the toilet. Continued Three organs play a pivotal role in helping the stomach and small intestine digest food: Pancreas Among other functions, the oblong pancreas secretes enzymes into the small intestine.
Liver The liver has many functions, but two of its main functions within the digestive system are to make and secrete bile, and to cleanse and purify the blood coming from the small intestine containing the nutrients just absorbed. Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped reservoir that sits just under the liver and stores bile. Colon Large Intestine The colon is a 5- to 6-foot-long muscular tube that connects the cecum the first part of the large intestine to the rectum the last part of the large intestine.
Continued Rectum The rectum Latin for "straight" is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. Anus The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. Large collections of lymphoid follicles occur in the pharynx tonsils and appendix. External to the lamina propria is the musularis mucosae , a layer of smooth muscle cells that produces local movements of mucosa.
The submucosa , just external to the mucosa, is areolar connective tissue containing a rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers which supply the surrounding tissues of the GI tract wall. Its elastic fibers enable the stomach to regain its normal shape after temporarily storing a large meal. Th muscularis externa, also called the muscularis surrounds the submucosa. The muscularis is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis. It typically has an inner circular layer and an outer longitudal layer of smooth muscle cells.
In several places along the tract, the circular layer thickens and forms sphincters that act as valves that control food passage from one organ to the next, they also prevent backflow.
In most alimentary canal organs, its made up of areolar connective tissue covered with mesothelium , a single layer of squamous epithelial cells. In the esophagus, which is located in the thoracic instead of the abdominopelvic cavity, the serosa is replaced by an adventitia , ordinary fibrous connective tissue that binds the esophagus to surrounding structures. Retroperitoneal organs have both a serosa facing the peritoneal cavity and an adventia on the side abutting the dorsal body wall.
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