Notes to the Book
In vivo gluten ingestion in coeliac disease. See also Bodybuilding Bodyweight exercise Calisthenics Weightlifting Plyometrics Weight training List of exercises Gym Legend c - compound exercise, i - isolated exercise. This section does not cite any sources. However, I would expect similar TEF from whey protein vs beef protein isolate, for example. The adipostat balloon, October 12, , http: Phosphocreatine releases energy to aid cellular function during stress. Older people who exercise against a resistance or force become stronger.
OUTWORK THE COMPETITION
Exercise, plasma composition and neurotransmission. Romanowski, W, and Grabiec S. The role of serotonin in the mechanism of central fatigue. Acta Physiol Pol The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior.
Am J Clin Nutr Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans. Brain Res Bull Neurotransmitter precursors for the treatment of depression. Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
J Am Geriatr Soc ;7: Int J Sports Med Biochim Biophys Acta Physiological Rev 72 1: Jpn Circ J Byull Eksp Biol Med Jpn J Pharmacol Sulfur Amino Acids Med Sci Sports Exer J Lipid Res 1: Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates and choline neurotransmitter synthesis.
Mt Sinai J Med ;55 1: Wurtman RJ, Hefti F. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol Rev ;32 4: Effects of electrical stimulation and choline availability on release and contents of acetylcholine and choline in superfused slices from rat striatum. J Physiol Paris ; Choline and cholinergic neurons. Release of acetylcholine from the vascular perfused rat phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm. Dieterich HA, Lindmar R.
The role of choline in the release of acetylcholine in isolated hearts. Rapid decline in acetylcholine release and content of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle after denervation. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in biathletes and adolescent runners during exercise.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners letter. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc ;27 5: The acute effect of a caffeine-containing energy drink on mood state, readiness to invest effort, and resistance exercise to failure.
Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous on strength and sprint performance. European Journal of Sport Science, The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. Caffeine use in sports: The effect of an acute ingestion of Turkish coffee on reaction time and time trial performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12 1 , The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.
High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1 , Nutrients, 7 7 , The effect of green tea extract on fat oxidation at rest and during exercise: An International Review Journal, 4 2 , Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: Several review studies assessing the safety of creatine supplementation tend to make note of increases in formaldehyde and possible carcinogenic results.
Anti-cancer effects have been observed with the creatine analogue cyclocreatine    and have been replicated with creatine itself. These effects tend to be a reduction in which the rate of implanted tumors progresses. These anti-cancer effects do not have a known reliability, as the expression of creatine kinase varies widely based on the type of tumor.
In regard to genetic damage, creatine has been shown in vitro to reduce mitochondrial DNA damage, secondary to buffering stores of ATP. Creatine supplementation appears to augment the anti-cancer effects of Vitamin C and methylglyoxal,  a metabolic by-product of glycolysis. Creatine is known to be present in the retina due to the expression of creatine kinase CK   and the GAMT enzyme of creatine synthesis, which is also present in the mammalian retina.
Creatine is known to occur in highly concetrated levels in chicken photoreceptors, relative to other parts of the eye mM  alongside high levels of creatine kinase. The glial cells in the retina Müller cells, known to supply photoreceptors with lactate for nutrition  do not appear to possess any creatine transporters  although they appear to express AGAT  , GAMT,  and can synthesize creatine for the retina. There is a genetic condition known as gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina , which is associated with a high level of Ornithine in the blood and a relative decrease in Arginine , which causes a relative creatine deficiency due to L-arginine being required to make creatine   and because high ornithine can suppress creatine synthesis AGAT in the glial cells of the retina.
Elsewhere, it has been noted that in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia CPEO, a progressive weakening of the muscles around the eye and a mitochondrial disorder , there was a failure of creatine supplementation to benefit symptoms when subjects were provided 20g daily for four weeks. Epithelial cells taken from the respiratory tract nasal, tracheal, and bronchial express very low levels of creatine kinase and phosphocreatine.
The addition of 15mM creatine to the medium does not appear to alter their growth or function. The pancreas is one of the extrahepatic beyond the liver organs that can synthesize creatine, alongside the kidneys. Creatine is mostly synthesized in the liver via AGAT and GAMT   the other locations are neurons,  the pancreas, and kidneys  despite it not being stored in high levels in the liver like glycogen or adipose would be.
Supplemental creatine is known to suppress AGAT by downregulating transcription,  which probably occurs in humans since the products of AGAT are reduced with creatine supplementation. These protective effects are similar to those seen with trimethylglycine , since they both cause an increase in liver concentrations of phosphatidylcholine PC, causing an increase in vLDL production and efflux of triglycerides from the liver. Young adult athletes who reported creatine usage for over two years prior to the study retrospective design were not significantly different than controls.
The kidneys are known to express a secondary creatine transporter known as the monocarboxylate transporter 12 MCT12, also known as SLC16A12 similar to the retina. In otherwise normal animals, supplementation of creatine at 0.
Nephrectomized rats may have significantly reduced creatine synthesis rates  via impairment of methylation the GAMT enzyme  although creatine reuptake from the urine seems unimpaired. When looking specifically at human studies, there has been a failure of creatine supplementation to induce or exacerbate kidney damage in people with ALS.
Creatine concentration is normally increased in the placenta and brain in the midgestation phase until term, with further increases in the brain for another two weeks after birth. Injections of creatine are known to be neuroprotective against low oxygen levels hypoxia even to neonatal rats. Skin degradation is caused by a loss of collagen and degradation of the extracellular matrix,  which is enhanced by UV radiation produces reactive oxygen species which stimulate MMPs  and contributes to skin integrity loss and wrinkling.
Due to the stimulation of collagen being associated with a cellular surplus of energy  and intracellular stores of energy declining with age,   creatine has been investigated as a topical anti-aging agent. The increased cellular storage of creatine may also confer antioxidative effects secondary to enhancing mitochondrial function  and may play a preventative role in addition to having a rehabilitative effect.
A study using creatine at 0. In advanced cases of ALS, the main cause of death is respiratory failure stemming from an inability to control the intercostal muscles. Some studies have failed to find improvements in MVIC in regard to attenuating the decline over time with 10g daily over 16 months,  with 5g daily after a five day loading phase for six months,  and 5g daily over nine months.
One study lasting 16 months using 10g creatine daily alongside the pharmaceutical riluzole noted that, after 34 of the patients died from ALS, creatine failed to exert protective effects against ALS-related mortality adjusted hazard ratio of 0.
A smaller study measuring only eight deaths noted that the six in placebo relative to two in creatine was too small of a sample size to detect a statistically significant difference. The first open label trial on ALS failed to significantly alter lung function as assessed by FEV when comparing the rate of decline pretreatment relative to treatment.
Mitochondrial myopathies are a subgroup of mitochondrial cytopathies in which the skeletal muscle is negatively influenced. They are characterized by weaknesses in muscular function and energy metabolism. A loading phase of 10g creatine monohydrate for two weeks and 4g for the final week in subjects with MELAS Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes has been noted to increase physical strength relative to baseline, although the poor VO 2 max seen in these subjects was not affected.
It is an X-linked progressive myopathy associated with abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. While the trend toward whole body strength reduction seen in placebo was ablated and there was no interaction with corticosteroids,  this study failed to find an influence on activities of daily living or lung function. There is no cure for either because they are genetic disorders, so current therapies are aimed at reducing side-effects.
Therapies include modafinil for the somnolence  and perhaps creatine for the reduction in strength and functionality.
Creatine is thought to be therapeutic due to a pilot study on an assortment of neuromuscular diseases 91 patients in total, 15 of which had congenital myotonias during which there was an overall increase in strength. In patients with DM1 given a short loading phase Elsewhere, a pilot study in people who met the diagnostic criteria for myotonic dystrophy type 2 DM2 or PROMM given 10g of creatine daily for three months failed to find an increase in strength, but there appeared to be a significant improvement in subjective wellbeing reported by the patients, relative to placebo.
The failure of creatine to improve physical performance in these conditions is thought to be related to the myopathies in general, which are known to result in less phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle,  associated with reduced expression of the creatine transporter. Creatine supplementation is being explored as a treatment for sarcopenia, the passive loss of lean mass that occurs with aging.
In a pilot study on youth with cystic fibrosis, supplementation of creatine at 12g for a week and 6g for eleven weeks afterward was associated with a time-dependent increase in maximal isometric strength reaching In people with COPD given either glucose placebo Due to its antidepressive properties, creatine supplementation has been investigated in people with bipolar disorder, despite creatine levels in the brains of bipolar patients not being significantly different than controls,   although the activity of creatine kinase seems to reflect the state of manic or depressive symptoms.
Insulin secretion seems to have interplay with creatine supplementation. However, this is only clinically significant during the first few days of loading, when myocyte stores of creatine are depleted.
During a creatine loading phase, it is possible for insulin secretion to enhance the rate of uptake into myocytes. When the myocytes are saturated with creatine seen after 3 days of loading , then this insulin effect seems to disappear. In vitro studies on endothelial cells have noted that the benefits of creatine against atherosclerosis via immune cell adhesion to the endothelial cell are blocked with the pharmaceutical ZM, a high affintiy adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist.
Thus, the study may have been underpowered or done in too short a time frame the test was done after only 5 days of loading to observe any possible effects. However, caffeine does not negate the benefits of creatine loading when not coingested, but just taken before exercise in the same dosage. It is not synergystic, although the metabolism of the two are linked. Trimethylglycine TMG, betaine is a dietary supplement and component of beet root , which is a methyl donor.
It contributes to metabolic processes in the body which require a methyl group either directly the methylation of homocysteine or indirectly via replenishing the active form of folate or via replenishing S-adenosyl methionine SAMe. As the synthesis of creatine via GAMT requires a donation from SAMe,  it is thought that TMG can aid in creatine synthesis, which has been noted in the rat liver in the absence of creatine supplementation.
The one study to investigate this claim noted that the addition of 2g of supplemental TMG to 20g supplemental creatine failed to outperform creatine by itself in terms of increasing muscular creatine stores or power output. In a study on Alpha-Lipoic Acid , 1,mg of ALA paired with g sucrose and 20g creatine monohydrate was more effective in increasing muscular creatine levels relative to creatine alone and creatine combined with sucrose.
A study in swine noted increased water retention via a PY value in the group fed both creatine and alpha-lipoic acid  at a dose of 24g and mg daily, respectively. COX-2, a pro-inflammatory enzyme, is sometimes a therapeutic target for both muscle soreness and some degenerative diseases that are exacerbated by inflammation.
There are no clinically significant side effects of acute creatine supplementation. Numerous trials have been conducted in humans with varying dosages, and the side effects have been limited to gastrointestinal distress from too much creatine consumption at once and cramping from insufficient hydration.
Studies that use a dosage range typical of creatine supplementation in the range of 5g a day following an acute loading period note increases to total body water of 6. In regard to the loading period, two reviews suggest that the range of weight gain associated with creatine supplementation at 20g for 7 days is in the range of 0.
Studies measuring extracellular water versus intracellular water note similar increases in both, associated with creatine. Creatine does not tend to disturb the ratios of water to dry mass in various tissues measured. One case study exists of a man with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis who experienced an accelerated rate of GFR decline during supplementation 5g thrice daily for loading, then a 2g maintenance for seven weeks which was partially reversed upon supplement cessation.
This was deemed strong circumstantial evidence, and the brand of supplement was not named. One case study exists in which a man with a single damaged kidney low GFR supplemented creatine at 20g for a period of five days and then a maintenance period for 30 days.
Supplementation failed to cause any kidney damage, despite the subject eating a diet very high in protein 2. Creat ine is normally metabolized into creat inine note the difference in spelling , which is eliminated by the kidneys under normal conditions.
Creatinine is easy to measure and as such it is a biomarker of kidney damage. Low dose creatine may not cause alterations in this biomarker in otherwise normal adults    but high doses of supplemental creatine may cause a false positive an increase in creatinine, due to creatine turning into creatinine, which does not signify kidney damage and is a diagnostic error. Common misspellings for Creatine include creatin, craetine, creating, creetine, createen.
Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence.
History Research analysis by Kamal Patel and verified by the Examine. Last updated on Jun 25, Also Known As creatine monohydrate, creatine 2-oxopropanoate, a-methylguanidinoacetic acid Do Not Confuse With creatinine metabolite , cyclocreatine analogue , creatinol O-phosphate analogue Things to Note There have been some anecdotal reports of a subtle but noticeable stimulatory effect on alertness, but this may be a placebo effect.
Grade Level of Evidence Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies Uncontrolled or observational studies only.
The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results. The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect. Scientific research does not always agree. Creatine supplementation is the reference compound for increasing muscular creatine levels; there is variability in this increase, however, with some nonresponders.
Appears to have a large effect on increasing overall weight due to water retention in persons who respond to creatine supplementation. Degree of increase is variable. Creatine supplementation usually increases serum creatinine levels during the loading phase but usually not during maintenance , since creatinine is the breakdown product of creatine. This is not indicative of kidney damage. Appears to be quite notable due to the increase in water weight in skeletal muscle tissue following creatine supplementation.
Appears to increase anaerobic cardiovascular capacity, not to a remarkable degree however. Does appear to have inherent lean mass building properties, but a large amount of research is confounded with water weight gains difficult to assess potency. In otherwise healthy persons given creatine supplementation, there is no significant beneficial nor negative influence on kidney function.
No reliable improvement in swimming performance. Fatigue is also reduced, though to a lesser degree, in cases of sleep deprivation. The influence of creatine on well being and general happiness is usually dependent on it treating a disease state; there does not appear to be a per se benefit to well being.
Degree of testosterone spike is not overly notable, although it appears to be present. Preliminary evidence seems to support a minor to moderate benefit with regard to Myotonic Dystrophy type II DM2 and a mild benefit or none with regard to DM1. Improvements in VO 2 max are not wholly reliable, and appear to be low in magnitude. Does not appear to confer any apparent benefit to prolonged cardiovascular exercise. No inherent benefit to omnivore cognition appears apparent, but it may benefit cognition in the sleep deprived.
Although there may be a small reduction of power output typical of creatine , the main parameter of interest cardiorespiratory output is mostly unaffected by creatine supplementation. The main parameter of interest with exercise in COPD cardiovascular capacity and aerobic exercise is wholly unaffected with supplementation, although power output still can be increased. Creatine reliably increases lean mass water at first, then muscle with more prolonged supplementation but does not appear to significantly alter fat mass.
No apparent reduction or increase in lactate in swimmers after sprinting exercises. No known influence on circulating liver enzymes, suggesting no liver toxicity in humans. No effect on healthy people or on disease states characterized by impaired lung function. Short term usage may increase power output like usual, but prolonged supplementation of creatine has failed to alter the deterioration of muscle and lung function.
While no reduction in mortality has been noted statistically, two studies have noted a trend towards reductions in mortality suggesting an unknown protective effect. No effect on cardiovascular exercise performance and lung and heart functions, the main parameters of concern when treating COPD. Depression symptoms seem to improve noticeably. This improvement is probably related to serotonin creatine supplementation appears to enhance SSRI therapy.
Possible gender differences a greater efficacy in females require further study. Degree of improvement is somewhat more potent than other supplemental options, and may be related to the improvements in glycemic control seen with creatine. During exercise, creatine supplementation can suppress growth hormone secretion: This bidirectional effect is similar to that of arginine supplementation.
Appears to be reliable in increasing cognition in vegetarians, but is based on limited evidence and not yet compared to a reference drug. An increase in DHT independent of an increase in testosterone has been noted, but the study requires replication due to some potential issues its location, the lack of biological plausibility, etc.
Creatine supplementation appears to reduce exercise-induced DNA damage. This is potentially promising with regard to cancer prevention. The effect of creatine supplementation on DNA methylation cannot be properly assessed due to a lack of comparisons with other agents.
Possibly an effect, but the less reliable effects of creatine in the older population which seem to respond less seems to manifest here. Appears to be somewhat effective in diabetics for improving glycemic control. Decrease in homocysteine biomarker of inflammatory cardiovascular disease was present, but not to a remarkable magnitude.
Creatine supplementation appears to induce myonuclei proliferation, to a degree unknown relative to other agents. There appears to be a mild therapeutic effect of creatine supplementation g to boys with DMD, mostly related to an improvement in handgrip strength and body composition with some parent-rated improvements.
The cognitive dysfunction associated with prolonged sleep deprivation can be attenuated, to a small degree, with prior creatine loading. No significant alterations in plasma adrenaline are seen with creatine supplementation during sleep deprivation. No significant alterations in plasma dopamine are seen with creatine supplementation during sleep deprivation.
No significant alterations in plasma noradrenaline are seen with creatine supplementation during sleep deprivation. There is no significant influence on protein losses in the urine proteinuria. The study that noted a prevention of lean mass loss did not distinguish between water and muscle, while the study that measured muscle mass specifically failed to find a protective effect during limb immobilization.
There is insufficient evidence to support a rehabilitative role of creatine supplementation. Increases in alertness tend to be during sleep deprivation or stress, rather than outright increases in alertness.
One study has found that creatine can increase blood flow to the calf and leg when combined with resistance training in healthy men. Creatine alone was found to have no effect. One study, that needs to be replicated, noted a reduction in range of motion. An increase in well-being and muscular strength has been noted in youth, but the main parameters under investigation lung and chest symptoms seemed unaffected. Cite this page "Creatine," Examine. Link to This Close. Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled.
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies. Uncontrolled or observational studies only. Very High See all 18 studies. Very High See all 66 studies. Very High See all 28 studies. Moderate See all 12 studies. Hydration Total Body Water. Very High See all 9 studies. High See all 19 studies. Very High See all 20 studies. Very High See all 13 studies. Moderate See all 17 studies. High See all 7 studies. Low See all 4 studies.
Low See all 3 studies. There is limited evidence in favor of improvements in bone mineral density. Moderate See all 8 studies. Small degree of fatigue reduction during exercise, but appears unreliable. Moderate See all 6 studies. Not overly protective, but there appears to be a degree of protection. High See all 3 studies. Moderate See all 11 studies. High See all 6 studies.
Treatment of Myotonic Dystrophy. Low See all 6 studies. Very High See all 7 studies. Very High See all 4 studies. Exercise Capacity with Heart Conditions. Very High See all 3 studies. Very High See all 5 studies. Insufficient evidence to support a role of creatine in increasing IGF High See all 4 studies. No effect on overall cholesterol levels in otherwise healthy males. Very High See all 6 studies.
Very High See 2 studies. Health and disease in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of southwestern France: PhD dissertation, New York University, Steckel and Jerome C. The History of European Health Project: Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Medica, Monographia ; The worst mistake in the history of the human race, Discover ;8 5: Summary in Mithen S.
Harvard University Press, , p. Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies. Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature ; When moving on the ground, they benefit from using these long, strong arms to promote locomotion. Grassland dwellers, on the other hand, benefit from bipedal walking, which raises the head and gives longer views.
The pelvis and femur of Ardipithecus ramidus: Science Oct 2; The positional behavior of Oreopithecus bambolii reconsidered. The isotopic ecology of African mole rats informs hypotheses on the evolution of human diet. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing. Neanderthal use of fish, mammals, birds, starchy plants and wood —, years ago. PLoS One ;6 8: The wild yam question: Human Ecology ; For more information, see Headland TN. Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation.
Nature Genetics Oct;39 Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: Journal of Archaeological Science ;20 4: Patterns of change in the Plio-Pleistocene carnivorans of eastern Africa: In Hominin environments in the East African Pliocene: An assessment of the faunal evidence, ed.
Springer Verlag, , 77— Man the fat hunter: PLoS One ;6 The rise of the hominids as an adaptive shift in fallback foods: Journal of Human Evolution Oct;49 4: Organ C et al. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo.
On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Fire as an engineering tool of early modern humans. Science Aug 14; A corrected ethnographic atlas. World Cultures ; Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.
Hunter-gatherer diets—a different perspective. Hat tip to Chris Masterjohn: A theory of human life history evolution: The ecological basis of hunter-gatherer subsistence in African rain forests: In Case studies in human ecology, ed. Plenum Press, , 55— Hat tip to Melissa McEwen: Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France.
Quoted in Sahlins M. Full text , hat tip Mark Ayers. Why do people die in famines? Evidence from three island populations. Population Studies Mar;56 1: Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: Journal of Internal Medicine Mar; 3: The Kitava Study, www. Oxford University Press, , Müller W et al.
Origin and migration of the Alpine Iceman. Science Oct 31; USA Today, August 11, , www. Mortality rate as a function of age, , www. High adult mortality among Hiwi hunter-gatherers: Journal of Human Evolution Apr;52 4: Hat tip to John Hawks: Hunter-gatherer mortality, March 28, , http: Journal of Archaeological Science ; Evidence for protection by breast-feeding against infant deaths from infectious diseases in Brazil.
The Lancet Aug 8;2 Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: Archives of General Psychiatry May;65 5: Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. The Lancet Feb 1; Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.
Human milk in comparison to cow milk. In Textbook of gastroenterology and nutrition, ed. Raven Press, , — See also Prentice A. Constituents of human milk. Lipids in human milk. Lipids Dec;34 Butyric and caprylic acid constitute 5. Brain lipid concentrations in bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research Feb;44 3: Obligate role for ketone body oxidation in neonatal metabolic homeostasis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry Mar 4; 9: In vitro fermentation of breast milk oligosaccharides by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus gasseri.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Jun;72 6: Ruiz-Palacios GM et al. Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H O antigen Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc , and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry Apr 18; Oligosaccharides in human milk: Annual Review of Nutrition ; Coppa GV et al. Changes in carbohydrate composition in human milk over 4 months of lactation. Pediatrics Mar;91 3: Nature Dec 23; Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients. National Academies Press, , , www.
Type of milk feeding affects hematological parameters and serum lipid profile in Japanese infants. Pediatrics International Mar 21, http: Low serum cholesterol in newborn babies, July 14, , http: HDL and immunity, April 12, , http: Blood lipids and infectious disease, part II, July 12, , http: Metabolic rate and organ size during growth from infancy to maturity and during late gestation and early infancy.
Pediatrics Jan;47 1 suppl 2: Advances in cell biology of blood-brain barrier transport. Seminars in Cell Biology Dec;2 6: Blood-brain barrier transport of glucose, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ; The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. Journal of Nutrition Oct; Hat tip to Barry Groves: Should all animals eat a high-fat, low-carb diet?
Digestive physiology of perbivores, July 13, , http: Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Mar;56 3: Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains. Self-selected macronutrient diet affects energy and glucose metabolism in brown fat-ablated mice. Obesity Research Dec;11 Hat tip to Peter Dobromylskyj: Physiological insulin resistance, October 23, , http: The expensive tissue hypothesis: Current Anthropology Apr;36 2: In Food and evolution: Harris M, Ross EB.
Temple University Press, , 93— Table 3. The human colon in evolution: The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. A two-stage model of increased dietary quality in early hominid evolution: Khirurgiia Sofiia ;30 2: Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus.
Clinical Anatomy May;24 4: Is there a perfect diet? Ethnographic models, archaeological data, and the applicability of modern foraging theory. In Hunter-gatherers in history, archaeology, and anthropology, ed. Berg, , —, at Hat tip to J Stanton: Big brains require an explanation, part III: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Apr;33 2: Hat tip to Stephan Guyenet: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: Simpson SJ, Raubenheimer D.
Obesity Reviews May;6 2: Theall CL et al. Self-selection and regulation of protein: Journal of Nutrition Apr; 4: Protein selection by rats adapted to high or moderately low levels of dietary protein. Speleogenesis of the Mount Elgon elephant caves, Kenya. GSA special papers , vol. Salt ingestion caves, International Journal of Speleology ;35 1 13— Hat tip to J. Association of the renin-sodium profile with the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension.
Hat tip to Chris Kresser: Shaking up the salt myth: Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Jul 6; 7: The danger of plant foods, June 18, , http: How to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity, October 20, , http: Adiposity in zoo gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla: Case Western Reserve University, February 17, , www.
Apes shed pounds while doubling calories on leafy diet, researcher finds. ScienceDaily, February 21, , www. Corrected weight loss data see errata is from Less EH. Hat tip to John Durant, personal communication. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.
International Journal of Experimental Pathology Oct;85 5: Lamb DJ et al. Dietary copper supplementation reduces atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Atherosclerosis Sep; 1: Mineral content of the diet alters sucrose-induced obesity in rats.
National Academies Press, , —6, , www. Labile protein reserves and protein turnover. Journal of Dairy Science Apr;60 4: Institute of Medicine Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids macronutrients.
The effect of dietary protein on carcinogenesis of aflatoxin. Archives of Pathology Feb;85 2: Protein-energy undernutrition in hospital in-patients.
British Journal of Nutrition Jun;83 6: The impact of malnutrition on kidney function. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism ;24 1: Recent advances in parenteral and enteral nutrition: Impaired gut barrier function in malnourished patients. British Journal of Surgery Sep;83 9: Developmental sequel from early nutritional deficiencies: Conclusive and probability judgements.
Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2S suppl: National Academies Press, , —5, www. Maximal rates of excretion and synthesis of urea in normal and cirrhotic subjects.
Journal of Clinical Investigation Sep;52 9: Energy source, protein metabolism, and hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology , 2: Prolonged meat diets with a study of kidney function and ketosis. The Journal of Biological Chemistry , Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans. Corpet DE et al. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein.
Nutrition and Cancer ;23 3: Clinical effects of two different levels of protein intake on low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics Jun;74 6: Goldman HI et al. Effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants: Journal of Pediatrics Jan;78 1: Late effects of early dietary protein intake on low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatrics Dec;85 6: Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: The danger of protein during pregnancy, July 12, , http: Excess methionine suppresses the methylation cycle and inhibits neural tube closure in mouse embryos.
Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society ; Hat tip to Matt Metzgar: Carb intake in healthy centenarians, January 20, , www. Testing protein leverage in lean humans: The nature of nutrition: Princeton University Press, The protein content of muscle. The Journal of Biological Chemistry ;25 2: Hat tip to Adel Moussa: Overtraining, inflammation, insufficient repair: Human muscle protein synthesis and breakdown during and after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology Jun; 6: An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein.
American Journal of Physiology Jul; 1 Pt 1: Churchward-Venne TA et al. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: Hat tip to Chris Highcock: Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise, May 17, , http: Journal of Applied Physiology Aug;73 2: See also Hoffman JR et al. Effects of ingesting protein in combination with carbohydrate during exercise on endurance performance: Amino Acids Nov;39 5: Jitomir J, Willoughby DS.
Leucine for retention of lean mass on a hypocaloric diet. Journal of Medicinal Food Dec;11 4: Life-span extension in mice by preweaning food restriction and by methionine restriction in middle age.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Jul;64 7: Miller RA et al. Methionine-deficient diet extends mouse lifespan, slows immune and lens aging, alters glucose, T4, IGF-I and insulin levels, and increases hepatocyte MIF levels and stress resistance. Aging Cell Jun;4 3: Orentreich N et al. Low methionine ingestion by rats extends life span. Journal of Nutrition Feb; 2: Lowered methionine ingestion as responsible for the decrease in rodent mitochondrial oxidative stress in protein and dietary restriction possible implications for humans.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Nov; Pamplona R, Barja G. Mitochondrial oxidative stress, aging and caloric restriction: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta May-Jun; 5—6: Sanchez-Roman I et al. Effects of aging and methionine restriction applied at old age on ROS generation and oxidative damage in rat liver mitochondria.
Biogerontology Aug;13 4: The atherogenic effect of excess methionine intake. Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. Autophagy Nov—Dec;3 6: Petrovski G, Das DK. Does autophagy take a front seat in lifespan extension? Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Nov;14 A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C. PLoS Genetics Feb;4 2: Autophagy and mechanisms of effective immunity.
Frontiers in Immunology ;3: Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: Coronary heart disease in Greenland Inuit: Implications for Western diet patterns. Arctic Medical Research Apr;48 2: Alternative Medicine Review Dec;10 4: Dietary restriction, glycolysis, hormesis and ageing. Biogerontology Apr;8 2: Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity.
Physiological Reviews Jan;90 1: Is it good to eat sugar? British Journal of Nutrition Aug; 3: The relation of low glycaemic index fruit consumption to glycaemic control and risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetologia Feb;54 2: Fructose induces transketolase flux to promote pancreatic cancer growth. Cancer Research Aug 1;70 Leucine, glucose, and energy metabolism after 3 days of fasting in healthy human subjects. European Journal of Cell Biology Aug;83 7: The adherent gastrointestinal mucus gel layer: Faure M et al. Development of a rapid and convenient method to purify mucins and determine their in vivo synthesis rate in rats.
Analytical Biochemistry Aug 15; 2: Ainsworth BE et al. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;79 6: Effect of fat adaptation and carbohydrate restoration on metabolism and performance during prolonged cycling.
Journal of Applied Physiology Dec;89 6: High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine.
Journal of Applied Physiology Jul; 1: Is there a glycemic threshold for mortality risk? Diabetes Care May;22 5: Dr Ron Rosedale, November 1, , http: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes UKPDS The Lancet Sep 12; Clinical and Investigative Medicine Aug;18 4: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine May;15 2: Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: Annals of Internal Medicine Sep 21; 6: Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetes and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: Diabetes Care Mar;31 3: Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: Diabetologia Jul;51 7: Prospective study of hyperglycemia and cancer risk.
Diabetes Care Mar;30 3: Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care Aug;24 8: Hat tip to Jenny Ruhl: Starches, sugars and obesity. Nutrients Mar;3 3: ScienceDaily, December 11, , www.
Segal MS et al. Is the fructose index more relevant with regards to cardiovascular disease than the glycemic index? European Journal of Nutrition Oct;46 7: Food processing and the glycemic index. Relationship between the rate of gastric emptying and glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods in young healthy adults. Glycemic index of single and mixed meal foods among common Japanese foods with white rice as a reference food. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jun;57 6: Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food.
Gut Jun;36 6: Jenkins AL et al. Nutrition Journal Nov 22;9: Perissinotto E et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older lifelong wine drinkers: Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions. Hepatic and whole-body fat synthesis in humans during carbohydrate overfeeding.
Hat tip to geoff