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The use of practice-based expert opinion refines research-based guidelines to ensure that recommendations are accessible, given limited funding and resources; credible, allowing them to be implemented in various school settings and communities; and reasonable in terms of the expectations they set for professional practice and health outcomes CDC scientists conducted an extensive search for scientific reports, using five electronic citation databases: The coordinated school health approach was used to organize the literature search results for school-based nutrition and physical activity as they related to a healthy and safe school environment; nutrition services; physical education and school-based physical activity; health education; health services and counseling, psychological and social services; family and community involvement; and health promotion for staff members.
Scientific reports were included if they described practices to improve child and adolescent nutrition and physical activity that were based in schools or that addressed family or community involvement in schools. Two overall types of scientific reports were used to identify the new guidelines and corresponding strategies and actions: Scientific reports were included if they were published during to update and expand on research described in the previous guidelines. Epidemiologic and surveillance data also were used to develop the introductory text.
Reports were excluded from consideration if they included only preschool children or college-age or older adults, were not in English, described clinical trials for weight-loss drugs or other nonbehavioral methods for weight loss, primarily addressed mental health issues such as eating disorders, or described interventions to improve performance in a specific sport or to improve functional ability after illness or injury.
A total of 6, abstracts were screened to identify full scientific reports to be retrieved. A total of 1, full scientific reports and expert statements were retrieved and reviewed for consideration in the guidelines. A team of four CDC scientists used a database to record descriptions of each of the 1, scientific reports and expert statements, including health topics e. For reports describing evaluation studies, CDC scientists identified and documented the sample size, demographic makeup of study participants, duration of study, method of group assignment e.
Expert statements were described by type of statement e. After describing the characteristics of evaluation studies and expert statements, four CDC staff members rated the relevance of each for inclusion in the guidelines. Each study and expert statement was read, and its evidence was rated. For scientific reports, the rating process focused on rigor, confidence in the findings, efficacy, and feasibility. For expert statements, the rating process focused on the organization that published or wrote the report, conflicts of interest, and evidence to support the statement.
Scientific reports were included if they had a rigorous study design with, at a minimum, a matched comparison group, strong study methods that contributed to confidence in the results, evaluation efficacy that included one or more positive results, and feasibility of implementing the intervention rated as medium or better.
All four categories had to be rated as acceptable for a study to be included in the review for this guideline document. In addition to the review of research and evaluation studies, CDC staff members identified, collected, and considered for inclusion all relevant reports from the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Three task force reports on nutrition, physical activity, and obesity were relevant i.
Best practice documents, position statements of individual persons or on behalf of organizations, and convened expert panels that covered topics related to youth physical activity and nutrition were included in the expert statements that were read and rated for sufficiency of evidence. Expert statements were included if 1 the experts had no conflicts of interest i. To ensure standardized and reliable coding, four CDC staff worked in pairs to rate a subset of 40 reports.
Discrepancies among coders were resolved through group discussion and consensus. The 1, scientific reports and expert statements were coded and categorized by each component for coordinated school health: The CDC staff members concluded that there was enough scientific evidence on school-based nutrition and physical activity for each component of the coordinated school health framework to be an independent guideline.
Furthermore, the CDC staff members identified enough scientific evidence to support the inclusion of two additional guidelines: After identifying each guideline, the CDC staff members reviewed the scientific reports again to identify common strategies and actions within each guideline that resulted in positive associations with student knowledge, attitude, behavior, or health outcomes related to physical activity, diet, weight, or chronic disease risk factors.
Expert statements also were reviewed for strategies and actions that are supported by opinions, commentaries, or consensus statements from public health and education organizations or agencies about youth nutrition, physical activity, or obesity prevention. Ultimately, research and evaluation studies and expert statements were rated as presenting evidence of sufficient relevance for a strategy or action to be included in the revision of the guidelines. An additional descriptive articles were included in the document to support the background information e.
In addition to the literature search and rating the sufficiency of the evidence, CDC convened a group of 10 experts in youth nutrition, physical activity, school health, school food service, education, and public health to review the scientific evidence and to provide individual input on proposed revisions of the guidelines. Input from the individual experts on the nine guidelines and corresponding strategies and actions were reviewed and integrated into the guidelines.
CDC also garnered input from 53 federal and state education and public health agencies, as well as from nongovernmental organizations that represented policy makers, educators, parents, students, school nurses, physicians, and other health-care providers. Each of the 53 agencies provided a review of the guidelines and proposed revisions. The revised version was sent for review and revision to three experts in the field of school-based nutrition and physical activity who had not previously reviewed the document.
This report was developed in response to the long-term and intermediate outcomes associated with inadequate physical activity and unhealthy eating. Healthy eating and physical activity have been associated with increased life expectancy, increased quality of life, and reduced risk for many chronic diseases 9, Healthy living through healthy eating and regular physical activity reduces the risk for the top three leading causes of death in the United States heart disease, cancer, and stroke , as well as for certain chronic conditions, such as high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes 1,2, Cardiovascular disease CVD includes coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and other diseases and illnesses of the heart and blood vessels.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and stroke is the third leading cause Adult population subgroups disproportionately affected by CVD and its related risk factors include blacks, Hispanics, Mexican-Americans, and persons of low socioeconomic status A healthy diet and regular physical activity can prevent and reduce metabolic risk factors that cause CVD, including hyperlipidemia e.
For example, dietary fiber can decrease the cholesterol concentration in the blood 21 , and physical activity can help maintain normal blood glucose levels 9. Studies indicate that CVD risk factors occur more frequently in obese children.
Some types of cancer can be prevented through regular physical activity and a diet consisting of various healthy foods with an emphasis on plant sources e.
A diet rich in plant foods is associated with a decreased risk for lung, esophageal, stomach, and colorectal cancer Dietary factors that influence cancer risk include food type, variety, preparation, portion size, and fat content 17, Excess consumption of processed and red meats is associated with an increased risk for colorectal and prostate cancer Physical activity might contribute to cancer prevention through its role in regulating the production of hormones, boosting the immune system, and reducing insulin resistance 9.
Regular physical activity can reduce the risk for developing cancers of the breast and colon, and some evidence indicates that physical activity can reduce the risk for developing endometrial and lung cancers 9. Healthy eating and physical activity also can contribute to cancer prevention by preventing obesity 9. Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for numerous types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostate, as well as multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's lymphoma Diabetes, a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels 26 , was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults and can affect the nervous system and oral health Persons with diabetes have a two to four times higher risk for dying from CVD than those without diabetes 27, Diabetes is a result of defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both and is classified as either type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes or type 2 usually non--insulin-dependent diabetes Although diet and physical activity can help control blood glucose levels and reduce complications from both types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas, and little is known about prevention In , the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among a sample of U.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in adults Healthy eating and regular physical activity can help prevent this type of diabetes 29,31, Type 2 diabetes was previously observed primarily among adults but has become more common among children and adolescents 26, In , the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a sample of U.
In the Pima Indian community, type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents aged years increased significantly from 0. Poor diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for numerous conditions that affect overall health and quality of life, and many of these conditions can lead to chronic diseases.
Intermediate outcomes such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, inadequate bone health, undernutrition, iron deficiency, eating disorders, and dental caries can begin in childhood, leading to earlier onset of disease and subsequent premature death.
Healthy eating and physical activity control body weight through a balance of energy expenditure and caloric consumption Weight gain occurs when persons expend less energy through physical activity than they consume through their diet As this imbalance continues over time, the risk for overweight and obesity increases Overweight is defined as having excess body weight for a particular height from fat, muscle, bone, water, or a combination of these factors Obesity is the condition of excess body fat In adults, weight status is determined directly by BMI.
Weight status in persons aged years is determined by comparing their BMI to other persons of the same sex and age in a reference population. BMI is calculated and plotted by age on a sex-specific growth chart to determine a BMI-for-age percentile. Poverty is determined by the poverty-income ratio, which is the ratio of a family's income to the U. Census Bureau's poverty threshold. The threshold varies with the number and ages of family members and is revised yearly.
Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with numerous immediate health risks, including high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, sleep disturbances, orthopedic problems, and social and psychological problems, such as discrimination and poor self-esteem 7,35, These immediate health risks can have long-term consequences for children and adolescents, affecting them into adulthood.
Insufficient public health and education efforts to decrease or minimize these health risks will affect both health-care and education systems. Increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents are of particular concern because those who are obese are more likely to become overweight or obese adults and have related chronic diseases 8. The probability of childhood obesity persisting into adulthood increases as children enter adolescence 46,47 ; even obesity during early childhood ages years increases the risk for adult obesity The findings were consistent for both sexes and all childhood age groups studied in the cohort years, years, years, years, years Obesity in adults is associated with an increased risk for premature death, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and many other health problems 8, The risk factors and precursors to these diseases are being detected in obese children 23 , and national concern exists that this trend might lower the age of onset of chronic conditions and diseases and possibly decrease the quality of life or shorten the lifespan of obese children Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic risk factors that increases the risk for prematurely developing CVD and type 2 diabetes Metabolic syndrome is defined as the presence of three or more of the following metabolic risk factors: Physical inactivity and obesity are established risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and a poor diet can accelerate the risk for developing CVD among persons with metabolic syndrome In , metabolic syndrome was significantly more prevalent among obese persons than among those of normal weight Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, along with weight-bearing physical activity e.
Physical activity places a mechanical load on the skeleton, and the body responds by strengthening bone mass to support the activity. In addition, both vitamin D and regular physical activity enhance the positive effects of calcium Bone growth during adolescence is particularly crucial for achieving optimal bone health because bone mass peaks in late adolescence 56, Adolescents who do not achieve optimal bone mass during this period will lack the adequate support to sustain normal losses of bone mass later in life.
Low body weight, weight loss, physical inactivity, and dieting among children and adolescents can lead to low bone density. Low bone density leads to osteoporosis, which is the most common cause of fractures among adults. In older adults, fractures lead to physical disabilities, depression, reduced quality of life, and potentially death 56, In , approximately 10 million U.
These conditions disproportionately affect women In addition, obesity in children and adolescents is associated with orthopedic complications such as fractures, musculoskeletal pain, impairment in mobility, and abnormal lower extremity alignment Reduced food intake and disrupted eating patterns because a household lacks money and other resources for food is referred to as food insecurity.
In , approximately Blacks and Hispanics have the highest prevalence of undernutrition 60 , and food insecurity and hunger might be associated with lower dietary quality and undernutrition in children and adolescents, especially in adolescents Undernutrition can have lasting effects on overall health, cognitive development, and school performance Children and adolescents in food-insecure households have poorer health status and experience more frequent stomachaches and headaches than those from food-secure households In addition to poor health outcomes, behavioral and psychosocial problems also have been associated with food insecurity and hunger in children and adolescents , Those who are food insecure have lower physical functioning and quality of life Children and adolescents experiencing hunger have lower math scores and are more likely to repeat a grade in school and receive special education services or mental health counseling than those not experiencing hunger 62, Children and adolescents experiencing hunger also are more likely to be absent and tardy from school than other children and adolescents Schools have a long history of seeking out and developing strategies to address these concerns.
The National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program were initiated, in part, as a way to reduce undernutrition among children and adolescents Iron deficiency is a condition resulting from too little iron in the body Iron deficiency hampers the body's ability to produce hemoglobin, which is needed to carry oxygen in the blood.
This deficiency can increase fatigue, shorten attention span, decrease work capacity, impair psychomotor development, affect physical activity, and reduce resistance to infection 70 , Iron deficiency ranges from depleted iron stores without functional or health impairment to iron deficiency with anemia, which affects the functioning of several body systems To prevent iron deficiency, children and adolescents need to consume adequate amounts of foods containing iron e. Among school-age children and adolescents with iron deficiency, anemia is associated with poor cognition and lower academic performance 72, Whether this association exists among iron-deficient children and adolescents without anemia is unclear A Healthy People national health objective strives to reduce iron deficiency among young children aged years and females of childbearing age aged years objective NWS 21 In a national sample, children and adolescents who were overweight or obese were approximately twice as likely to be iron deficient than those of normal weight Eating disorders are psychological disorders characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior.
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a refusal to maintain a normal body weight. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting Disorders that do not meet all criteria for either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa are referred to as eating disorders not otherwise specified. Eating disorders are more common in females than males. Among females, the lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa is approximately 0.
The prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in males is approximately one tenth that in females. According to the American Psychiatric Association, the prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in U. However, children and adolescents report disordered eating behaviors that are clinically severe but do not meet full criteria for an eating disorder.
Eating disorders can cause severe complications, and mortality rates for these disorders are among the highest for any psychiatric disorder Dental caries is the most common chronic condition in children and adolescents, with the greatest prevalence in blacks and Mexican-Americans and in those who live in poverty Pain from untreated caries can affect school attendance, eating, speaking, and subsequent growth and development Dental caries is associated with sugar and full-calorie soda consumption 80, Children who are obese have been found to have higher rates of dental caries than their normal weight peers The Dietary Guidelines for Americans have been published every 5 years since 5.
The guidelines also recommend that children, adolescents, and adults limit intake of solid fats major sources of saturated and trans fatty acids , cholesterol, sodium, added sugars, and refined grains 5. Available data indicate that most children and adolescents do not follow critical dietary guidelines.
For example, the guidelines provide guidance on the amount of fruits and vegetables that children and adolescents should consume. The guidelines also recommend that children aged years drink 2 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products per day and persons aged years drink 3 cups per day i. The guidelines recommend that children and adolescents consume at least half of their daily grain intake as whole grains, which for many people is 2- to 3-oz equivalents, depending on age, sex, and calorie level 5.
Whole grains are an important source of fiber and other nutrients. Persons aged years do not eat the minimum recommended amounts of whole grains. During , the median intakes of whole grains in this age group ranged from 0.
Sodium intake, which is associated with increased blood pressure 85 , has increased steadily during the last 35 years, in large part because of increased consumption of processed foods such as salty snacks and increased frequency of eating food away from home The guidelines recommend a maximum daily intake of sodium of 2, mg or 1, mg, depending on age and other individual characteristics.
These groups make up approximately half of the U. However, almost all persons in the United States consume more than the recommended amount of sodium. During , boys aged years and years had an average daily sodium intake of 3, mg and 3, mg, respectively. Girls aged and years had an average daily sodium intake of 2, mg and 3, mg, respectively Although the dietary guidelines do not have a recommendation for the maximum daily intake for added sugar, they do recommend that persons reduce their intake of added sugars 5.
Males aged years consume an average of Because many foods and beverages with added sugar tend to contain few or no essential nutrients or dietary fiber, the guidelines advise that one way to reduce intake of added sugar is to replace sweetened foods and beverages with those that are free of or low in added sugars 5. Approximately half of these empty calories come from six sources, which include soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk The guidelines recommend that persons in the United States, including children and adolescents, strive to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
Specifically, children and adolescents are encouraged to maintain the calorie balance needed to support normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain 5.
During , a significant increase in caloric intake occurred in the United States Changes in energy intake among children and adolescents varied by age. Studies indicate that the overall energy intake among children aged and years remained relatively stable from to the late s and 84,89, However, the energy intake among persons aged years increased significantly during the same period 84,90, Multiple factors, including demographic, personal, and environmental factors, influence the eating behaviors of children and adolescents.
Male adolescents report greater consumption of fruits and vegetables and higher daily intakes of calcium, dairy servings, and milk servings than females 78 , Black adolescents are more likely than white or Hispanic adolescents to report eating fruits and vegetables five or more times per day Children and adolescents from low-income households are less likely to eat whole grain foods Taste preferences of children and adolescents are a strong predictor of their food intake Taste preference for milk, among both males and females, is associated with calcium intake Taste preferences for fruits and vegetables are one of the strongest reported correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among males and females Male and female adolescents who reported frequent fast-food restaurant visits three or more visits in the past week were more likely to report that healthy foods tasted bad, that they did not have time to eat healthy foods, and that they cared little about healthy eating Certain behaviors and attitudes among children and adolescents are related to healthy eating.
For example, behavior-change strategies that are initiated by children and adolescents e. Among female adolescents, self-efficacy to make healthy food choices and positive attitudes toward nutrition and health are significantly related to calcium intake The home environment and parental influence are strongly correlated with youth eating behaviors.
Home availability of healthy foods is one of the strongest correlates of fruit, vegetable, and calcium and dairy intakes 92, Family meal patterns, healthy household eating rules, and healthy lifestyles of parents influence fruit, vegetable, calcium and dairy, and dietary fat intake of adolescents The physical food environment in the community, including the presence of fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, schools, and convenience stores, influences access to and availability of foods and beverages A lack of grocery stores in neighborhoods is associated with reduced access to fresh fruits and vegetables 99, and less healthy food intake Low-income neighborhoods have fewer grocery stores than middle-income neighborhoods, predominantly black neighborhoods have half the number of grocery stores as predominantly white neighborhoods, and predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods have one third the amount of grocery stores as predominantly non-Hispanic neighborhoods Furthermore, lower-income and minority neighborhoods tend to have more fast-food restaurants than high-income and predominately white neighborhoods During , approximately three in 10 children and adolescents consumed at least one fast-food meal per day; those who reported eating fast foods consumed more total calories than those who did not Children and adolescents who report eating fast foods tend to consume more total energy, fat, and sugar-sweetened beverages and consume less milk, fruits, and nonstarchy vegetables Children and adolescents are more likely than adults to report fast-food consumption The school environment also influences youth eating behaviors and provides them with opportunities to consume an array of foods and beverages throughout the school day.
The widespread availability of foods and beverages served outside of the federal school lunch and breakfast programs is well-documented , These products, referred to as competitive foods and beverages because they are sold in competition with traditional school meals, often are sold in the school cafeteria and are available throughout school buildings, on school grounds, or at school-sponsored events.
Food advertising and marketing influence food and beverage preferences and purchase requests of children and adolescents i.
Children and adolescents are exposed to many forms of marketing, including television advertisements, advertising on the Internet and advergames i. Physical activity is defined as "any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level" 9.
Examples of physical activity include walking, running, bicycling, swimming, jumping rope, active games, resistance exercises, and household chores. The guidelines indicate that children and adolescents should include vigorous intensity, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities at least 3 days of the week. HHS also recommends encouraging children and adolescents to participate in activities that are age appropriate, are enjoyable, and offer variety 9. Healthy People national health objectives include an objective on increasing the proportion of adolescents who meet current federal physical activity PA guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity objective PA 3 Despite national guidelines for physical activity, many young persons are not regularly physically active.
Regular participation in physical activity among children and adolescents is related to demographic, personal, social, and environmental factors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black students are less active than their non-Hispanic white counterparts This difference also is evident during childhood and continues through adulthood, with non-Hispanic white adults having the highest prevalence of activity compared with other ethnic groups Sex is correlated with physical activity levels, with males participating in more overall physical activity than females This trend continues through adulthood, with females remaining less physically active than males Adolescent males also report a greater intention to be physically active in the future than females Children and adolescents who intend to be active in the future and who believe physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle engage in more activity.
Overall, personal fulfillment influences the motivation both of boys and girls to be physically active Child and adolescent perceptions of their ability to perform a physical activity i. Girls are motivated by physical activities that they prefer and by their confidence in their ability to perform an activity Boys are affected by their ability to perform a particular physical activity, as well as by social norms among both friends and parents Positive social norms and support from friends and family encourage youth involvement in physical activity among all children and adolescents ,, Parent and family support for physical activity can be defined as a child's perception of support e.
Youth perceptions and parent reports of support for physical activity are strongly associated with participation in both structured and nonstructured physical activity among children and adolescents ,, The physical environment can be both a benefit and a barrier to being physically active. Environmental factors that might pose a barrier to physical activity include low availability of safe locations to be active, perceived lack of access to physical activity equipment, cost of physical activities, and time constraints , Youth perceptions of neighborhood safety e.
Parents' perceptions about environmental factors also influence physical activity among children and adolescents. For example, parents rate distance and safety as top barriers for their children walking to school The school environment can also influence the participation of children and adolescents in physical activity. Although this is a critical opportunity for children and adolescents to participate in physical activity, schools do not provide it daily.
In addition, many schools do not regularly provide other physical activity opportunities during the school day, such as recess. When schools provide supportive environments by enhancing physical education , and health education , having staff members become role models for physical activity, increasing communication about the benefits of physical activity, and engaging families and communities in physical activity, children and adolescents are more likely to be physically active and maintain a physically active lifestyle Television viewing, nonactive computer use, and nonactive video and DVD viewing are all considered sedentary behaviors.
Television viewing among children and adolescents, in particular, has been shown to be associated with childhood and adult obesity Potential mechanisms through which television viewing might lead to childhood obesity include 1 lower resting energy expenditure, 2 displacement of physical activity, 3 food advertising that influences greater energy intake, and 4 excess eating while viewing , Overall, persons aged years spend an average of 7 hours and 11 minutes per day watching television, using a computer, and playing video games The home environment offers children and adolescents many opportunities for television viewing, including eating meals while watching television or having a television in their bedroom The presence of a television in a child's bedroom is associated with more hours spent watching television 0.
The likelihood of having a television in the bedroom increases with a child's age , Eating meals in front of the television is associated with more viewing hours Children and adolescents are more likely to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors when watching television ,, and are exposed to television advertisements promoting primarily restaurants and unhealthy food products , Increased television viewing among children and adolescents is associated with consuming more products such as fast food, soft drinks, and high-fat snacks ,,, and consuming fewer fruits and vegetables ,, Healthy People national health objectives include a comprehensive plan for health promotion and disease prevention in the United States.
Healthy People includes objectives related to physical activity and healthy eating among children and adolescents and in schools Appendix B Schools have direct contact with students for approximately 6 hours each day and for up to 13 critical years of their social, psychological, physical, and intellectual development The health of students is strongly linked to their academic success, and the academic success of students is strongly linked with their health.
Therefore, helping students stay healthy is a fundamental part of the mission of schools School health programs and policies might be one of the most efficient means to prevent or reduce risk behaviors, prevent serious health problems among students, and help close the educational achievement gap , Schools offer an ideal setting for delivering health promotion strategies that provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy behaviors.
Schools, across all regional, demographic, and income categories, share the responsibility with families and communities to provide students with healthy environments that foster regular opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity. Healthy eating and physical activity also play a significant role in students' academic performance. The importance of healthy eating, including eating breakfast, for the overall health and well-being of school-aged children cannot be understated.
Most research on healthy eating and academic performance has focused on the negative effects of hunger and food insufficiency 62 and the importance of eating breakfast 65,, Recent reviews of breakfast and cognition in students 73,, report that eating a healthy breakfast might enhance cognitive function especially memory , increase attendance rates, reduce absenteeism, and improve psychosocial function and mood.
Certain improvements in academic performance such as improved math scores also were noted 65, A growing body of research focuses on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance among school-aged children and adolescents.
A comprehensive CDC literature review that included 50 studies synthesized the scientific literature on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance, including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors e. The review identified a total of associations between school-based physical activity and academic performance.
Therefore, the evidence suggests that 1 substantial evidence indicates that physical activity can help improve academic achievement, including grades and standardized test scores; 2 physical activity can affect cognitive skills and attitudes and academic behavior including enhanced concentration, attention, and improved classroom behavior ; and 3 increasing or maintaining time dedicated to physical education might help and does not appear to adversely affect academic performance Schools can promote the acquisition of lifelong healthy eating and physical activity behaviors through strategies that provide opportunities to practice and reinforce these behaviors.
School efforts to promote healthy eating and physical activity should be part of a coordinated school health framework, which provides an integrated set of planned, sequential, and school-affiliated strategies, activities, and services designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional, social, and educational development of students. A coordinated school health framework involves families and is based on school and community needs, resources, and standards.
The framework is coordinated by a multidisciplinary team such as a school health council and is accountable to the school and community for program quality and effectiveness School personnel, students, families, community organizations and agencies, and businesses can collaborate to successfully implement the coordinated school health approach and develop, implement, and evaluate healthy eating and physical activity efforts. Ideally, a coordinated school health framework integrates the efforts of eight components of the school environment that influence student health i.
The following guidelines reflect the coordinated school health approach and include additional areas deemed to be important contributors to school health: This report includes nine general guidelines for school health programs to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Each guideline is followed by a series of strategies for implementing the general guidelines. Because each guideline is important to school health, there is no priority order. Then, guidelines pertaining to nutrition services and physical education are provided, followed by guidelines for health education, health, mental health and social services, family and community involvement, staff wellness, and professional development for staff.
Although the ultimate goal is to implement all guidelines recommended in this report, not every guideline and its corresponding strategies will be feasible for every school to implement. Because of resource limitations, some schools might need to implement the guidelines incrementally.
Therefore, the recommendation is for schools to identify which guidelines are feasible to implement, based on the top health needs and priorities of the school and available resources. Families, school personnel, health-care providers, businesses, the media, religious organizations, community organizations that serve children and adolescents, and the students themselves also should be systematically involved in implementing the guidelines to optimize a coordinated approach to healthy eating and regular physical activity among school-aged children and adolescents.
The guidelines in this report are not clinical guidelines; compliance is neither mandatory nor tracked by CDC.
However, CDC monitors the status of student health behaviors and school health policies and practices nationwide through three surveillance systems. These systems provide information about the degree to which students are participating in healthy behaviors and schools are developing and implementing the policies and practices recommended in the guidelines.
YRBSS includes a national, school-based survey conducted by CDC and state, territorial, tribal, and district surveys conducted by state, territorial, and local education and health agencies and tribal governments. YRBSS data are used to 1 measure progress toward achieving national health objectives for Healthy People and other program and policy indicators, 2 assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults, and 3 evaluate the effect of broad school and community interventions at the national, state, and local levels.
In addition, state, territorial, and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations use YRBSS data to set and track progress toward meeting school health and health promotion program goals, support modification of school health curricula or other programs, support new legislation and policies that promote health, and seek funding and other support for new initiatives.
SHPPS data are used to 1 identify the characteristics of each school health program component e. The School Health Profiles i. State, local, and territorial education and health officials use Profiles data to 1 describe school health policies and practices and compare them across jurisdictions, 2 identify professional development needs, 3 plan and monitor programs, 4 support health-related policies and legislation, 5 seek funding, and 6 garner support for future surveys.
Results from the surveys are described throughout this report. Physical education, health education, and other teachers; school nutrition service staff members; school counselors; school nurses and other health, mental health, and social services staff members; community health-care providers; school administrators; student and parent groups; and community organizations should work together to maximize healthy eating and physical activity opportunities for students Box 1.
Coordination of all these persons and groups facilitates greater communication, minimizes duplication of policy and program initiatives, and increases the pooling of resources for healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices Establish a school health council and designate a school health coordinator at the district level.
Each district should have a school health council to help ensure that schools implement developmentally appropriate and evidence-based health policies and practices. The school health council serves as a planning, advisory, and decision-making group for school health policies and programs. School health councils should include representatives from different segments of the school and community, including health and physical education teachers, nutrition service staff members, students, families, school administrators, school nurses and other health-care providers, social service professionals, and religious and civic leaders The school health council provides input on decisions about how to promote health-enhancing behaviors, including healthy eating and physical activity among students.
Some roles of school health councils include Each district also should designate a school health coordinator who manages and coordinates health-related policies and practices across the district, including those related to healthy eating and physical activity. This person serves as an active member of the district-level school health council and communicates the district school health council's decisions and actions to school-level health coordinators and teams, staff, students, and parents , A district school health coordinator also should.
Establish a school health team and designate a school health coordinator at the school level. Each school should establish a school health team, representative of school and community groups, to work with the greater school community to identify and address the health needs of students, school administrators, parents, and school staff.
A school health team. Every school also should designate a school health coordinator to manage the school health policies, practices, activities, and resources, including those that address healthy eating and physical activity. School health coordinators might. An assessment of current school-based healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices is necessary to provide baseline information about strengths and weaknesses.
An assessment can also identify how district-level policies are being implemented at the school level and in the development of community-specific strategies. An assessment enables the school health council, school health coordinator, parents, school administrators, and school board members to develop a data-based plan for improving student health. A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide available at http: Schools and school districts can refer to the School Health Index for a comprehensive list of policies and practices that promote healthy eating and physical activity in schools.
The School Health Index guides schools through the development of an action plan to improve their school health policies and practices , Results from the School Health Index assessment and action plan can help schools determine where, what, and how to incorporate health promotion programs and policies into their overall school improvement plan.
Inclusion in the school improvement plan helps ensure that health is a regular item on agendas of district school board meetings and school-based management committees. Completing the School Health Index can lead to positive changes in the school health environment.
For example, after completing the School Health Index, some schools have hired a physical education teacher for the first time, added healthier food choices to school meal programs, and incorporated structured fitness breaks into the school day An assessment might also involve collection of data on current eating and physical activity behaviors of students, community-based nutrition and physical activity programs, and student, staff, and parent needs School health policies are official statements from education agencies and other governing bodies e.
They identify what should be done, why it should be done, and who is responsible for doing it. School health policies can School health policies should comply with federal, state, and local laws and mandates. School health councils, teams, and coordinators can lead the development, implementation, and monitoring of policies , The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of required that each school district participating in the federally supported meal program establish a local school wellness policy for the first time by school year By , most school districts had a local wellness policy; however, the quality of policies varied across school districts.
In addition, many of the policies lacked plans for implementing and monitoring the status of the wellness policy The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of updated requirements for local school wellness policy to include, at a minimum,.
The act also requires that the U. Department of Agriculture USDA , in conjunction with the CDC director, "prepare a report on the implementation, strength, and effectiveness of the local school wellness policies" States, districts, and schools should use a systematic approach when developing, implementing, and monitoring healthy eating and physical activity policies.
They can use the following strategies throughout the policy process. Identify and involve key stakeholders from the beginning of the policy process. One person, such as the school health coordinator at the district or school level, depending on the level at which the policy is to be implemented , should assume or be designated with overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing healthy eating and physical activity policies.
Megan Detrie is a multimedia journalist based in Cairo, Egypt who writes regularly on agriculture, politics and the Middle East. The former food security and agriculture reporter at The National newspaper in Abu Dhabi, she has reported on agriculture issues in Ethiopia, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt.
Miquel became a photographer in the s and is a member of Agence VU'. His first photo-stories, on Maya Indian communities, were shot in Guatemala, a country he has been traveling for over 15 years. Next, he turned to documenting the consequences of the year Guatemalan Civil War. He camped with the guerrillas, shared the refugees' daily life, and recorded testimony from the families of victims of the genocide carried out by Guatemalan Army regulars.
Since , Miquel Dewever-Plana has been photographing the endemic violence plaguing Guatemala, the gang wars and widespread corruption. He met Alma in , and was inspired to help her make a confession. Papa Ansoumana Diatta is a development worker from Senegal.
He currently works for the Italian non-governmental organisation Comunità Promozione e Sviluppo CPS as an administrator and accountant. Papa has been involved in different development projects on vulnerability of minors and forced child labour, supported by the Senegalese government, UNICEF and the World Bank.
Papa Ansoumana holds a master's degree in business administration with a focus on finance and accountability. Political scientist by education, Simon is co-author of DWA policy papers on media, development and participation. He contributes to he outlining and strategy of projects and has experience in implementation, supporting television and radio in Laos and Vietnam. Bärbel Dieckmann is president of the German Welthungerhilfe. She was mayor of Bonn from to Between and she was a member of the executive board of the SPD and from to she was a member of the party executive.
Among other things, she was chairperson of the World Mayors' Council on Climate Change founded on the occasion of the 11th Conference on the Parties on Climate Change , executive president of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions Brussels and member of the policy committee of the Association of German Cities. Bärbel Dieckmann studied Philosophy, History and Social Sciences at the University of Bonn and was a teacher between and , most recently as director of studies at a comprehensive school and grammar schools.
Dietrich is responsible for processes relating to the thematic positioning and the negotiation of the Post Agenda for Sustainable Development. The issues covered by the special unit are the Millennium Development Goals, the Sustainable Development Goals, and overarching post topics such as global partnership, universality, monitoring and sustainable consumption and production SCP. Prior to this, he headed the Directorate "Climate; poverty reduction; sectoral policies; Latin America", the Southern Africa Division and the Division "Policy issues of bilateral development cooperation; development effectiveness; evaluation".
He holds a doctorate in agricultural economics from Munich Technical University. Franz Dietrich is an expert for regional and business development with over 30 years of experience in promoting innovation and commercializing technology with the assistance of technology business incubators TBI , science and technology parks.
Janosch Dietrich is a communications-scientist and co-founder and chairman of the travelling film festival and non-profit organisation Moviemiento, which runs projects in Europe and over-seas. In the past few years he has also worked on sustainable tourism projects in South-East Asia.
At the moment he is employed at the Berlin based organisation ICJA with focus on international volunteering programmes. Dr Petra Dilthey earned her doctorate as an ethnologist, director and filmmaker. She works with her husband, Uli Schwarz, for up-filmproduction.
The profits generated by film marketing go into the association they founded, up4change e. The couple presents their aid projects in Brazil, India and Kenya on their website:. Michael Dohr studied Development Studies in Bonn.
Frank creates and organises cultural events, amongst them exhibitions and festivals on behalf of the German Federal Cultural Foundation and the Goethe Institut. He studied journalism, dramatics and psychology in Berlin and Rome, contributed to several human sciences research projects and worked as a journalist. His TV-feature "Tombstones fabricated by children's hands" arte has been nominated for the Prix Europa and awarded with the Kindernothilfe's media prize.
Apart from devising lobby and PR strategies at the international level and monitoring European, EU and UN developments in trafficking and human rights issues, she has a publishing record covering issues of trafficking, emancipation, sex work and migrants' rights. Patricia Dorsher is a James E. Patricia was launch editor for Feedback Labs and previously worked on empowerment-based models with victims of domestic violence and in the Japanese government on issues of multiculturalism, diversity, and immigrant support.
He has a wealth of experience including banking, consulting, management, research, and training and development in the corporate, banking and telecom sectors. Next to his involvement in GABV, he is entrepreneur and co-founder of SingularNet, a professional services firm focused on helping organizations incorporate sustainability in their business operations, Professor of Business Administration at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Spain , and Supervisory Board member of Triodos Bank.
In international cooperation since Erik Engel's work has focused on food security and natural resource management. He oversaw microfinance projects and cash based interventions in Tajikistan and Uganda and guided teams of consultants for SLE in participatory strategy development and assessments.
She was one of six team members to conduct the study for the KfW. Alison Evans is an economist with over 25 years experience working in international development. She has been Director of ODI, the UK's leading think tank in international development and humanitarian policy and practice, since Alison has extensive experience working in research, policy and evaluation with strong geographic expertise in southern and eastern Africa, southeast Asia and the Balkans.
Alison is a frequent participant in advisory boards across the bilateral and multilateral development system. Minds for Change conference. He was based in Latin America for 7 years, specialising in work with isolated, indigenous communities across the region, supporting local people in designing and implementing sustainable and practical development projects.
Kenny returned to the UK in where he led the development of WeFarm as part of a UK charity's start-up initiative. She is a human rights lawyer and a professor at the University of Nigeria. Joy Ngozi Ezeilo has published extensively on a variety of topics in the field of law, gender, human rights, peace and conflict resolution.
Furthermore, she has received several prestigious national and international awards. She was conferred with a national Honour-Officer of the Order of Nigeria OON in in recognition of her outstanding contributions to nation building in the area of legal scholarship, advocacy, civil society movement and community service.
He received a PhD in applied economics from the University of Minnesota and bachelor's and master's degrees from Nanjing Agricultural University in China. Shenggen participated in the Securing food conference Arif Farahmand grew up in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. After working for Afghan media, he joined Deutsche Welle in Bonn in Tithe Farhana is a journalist from Bangladesh. Tithe has been working as communications coordinator at Plan Bangladesh, the regional office of Plan International, and communication consultant at the International Rice Research Institute.
She has working experience in both Ecuador and Germany. He is author of the book Floodlines: Laura Fletcher emerged into documentary making from her career in broadcast journalism.
Since she has worked as a television, radio and multimedia journalist for the Irish public service broadcaster RTÉ. She joined RTÉ in her early twenties and has worked in almost every section of the newsroom, on television, radio, and online, both at home and abroad. In Fletcher took a sabbatical to work with media and human rights organisation Media Monitoring Africa in Johannesburg in South Africa. While there, Fletcher also produced two radio documentaries on human trafficking, and set up training programmes for young journalists.
From to Fletcher filmed, directed and largely funded the documentary African Pride. Before, she worked for Handelsblatt publishing group. Flores has also served as an adviser to the Vice-Presidency of Public Security, Justice and Comptroller Affairs at the INEGI, where she specifically addressed duties related to victimization surveys and public safety statistics.
She formerly held several other positions at the Secretariat of Public Function. She also is board chair of Ileia - the Centre for Learning on sustainable agriculture and the secretariat of the global AgriCultures network and of iied, the International Institute of Environment and Development.
She is an active World Connector and serves on the board of Cordaid, one of the biggest international development organisations and on the board of WWF Netherlands. In Teresa was elected one of sustainability leaders in the Netherlands. Isabelle has been working as a journalist and author since Between and , she co-directed "Euroland," a series of documentaries about Europe for Italian television. Isabelle also writes books for children, and founded an international photojournalism prize 12 years ago, at the Perpignan Visa pour l'Image Festival.
Three years before publishing the documentary, she began working with Miquel on recording Alma's story. In her doctoral thesis she analyzed how the issues of food security, monetary policies and social narratives are intertwined in Argentina. Her goal is to introduce qualitative methodology into the study of Global Political Economy.
He holds a degree in Political Economy. Her research focusses on migration, social cohesion, conflict and xenophobia. She is particularly interested in exploring how conflict between different groups in South Africa's mobile, diverse and marginalised informal settlements can be prevented in the short and long term. Hans Henrik Fricke holds a bachelor of arts in architecture. He is currently based in Tokyo, learning the Japanese language as a scholar with the German Academic Exchange Service.
He is interested in urbanism especially in the urban fabric of Asian megacities. Furthermore, he is a passionate about outdoor sports, such as hiking and telemark skiing. After his work for the Parliamentary Caucus of the Green Party in the German Bundestag he worked several years as a free-lance consultant. Emma Furniss is business relations manager at Fairphone. Before joining Fairphone, she initiated her own small-scale entrepreneurial projects with positive social impact.
Emma studied business in London and has worked in process management and optimisation for a multinational production company. Patricia Galicia holds a university degree in Communication and Education with a focus on Gender Studies. She is the founder of "Red Mujeres al Aire" Network of Women on air , an association of women in broadcasting. It fosters the reunion, capacity building and radio production of women with various ethnical backgrounds from the different regions of Guatemala.
At the TED conference, Gallop launched the makelovenotporn. He has recently finished his dissertation dealing with the subject of the critique of capitalism in contemporary American science fiction literature. In 10 years on the environment beat, Erica Gies has covered energy, water, climate policy, green business, green building and urban planning, waste, ecosystem biology, and more.
Iffat Gill is the founder of The Code To Change, an initiative to empower women to participate in the global digital economy. An international NGO leader, activist, digital strategist and social entrepreneur, Iffat is working on gender equality and economic empowerment of women through digital inclusion. She has been at the forefront of shaping the global policy debate around skills gap and gender digital divide.
Michael Gleich is a journalist, book author and moderator. How can conflict regions return to peace? He is primarily interested in the question of how to best encourage and feed the human spirit. Martin Gommel 34 is a father, husband, and photographer. He loves life, books of photographs, and Kenyan coffee. He has recently begun working on a project about refugees in Germany.
Héctor has set up three photography exhibitions and a collective performance at the 1rst International Gathering of Visual Arts in Toluca — Mexico, Both as a researcher and as a hip hop activist, he is interested in the rebellious side of rap music. He also holds a position at the Amsterdam Business School. His research focuses on governance issues in international business, with a focus on international networks, market entry, sustainability and corporate social responsibility.
His research focuses on external support to fragile states and on the politics of governance interventions. He has been working with Amnesty International since He holds a degree in Law from Cologne University, Germany. In her studies, she focuses on International Political Communication in the Middle East, media and development, and the interplay of culture, identity and politics in Arab societies.
Amitesh Grover is a performance-based artist and curator. His work has received critical acclaim in the domain of performance and visual art, and won him several awards and residencies, of which his most recent nomination was for Forecast Award for Emerging Curator HKW, Berlin His works have been shown in performance festivals, galleries, exhibitions, the internet, and other public spaces around the world. He lives and works in New Delhi, India, where he also teaches and writes on performance, interactivity and knowledge-production.
Her research focus is on the link between natural resources and conflict. She has conducted case studies on the influence of natural resources on violent conflict in several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Chad. She also conducts research on how good resource governance can prevent conflicts surrounding natural resources.
Miriam Gutekunst is a cultural anthropologist at the University of Munich. As part of her dissertation project, she did research in Morocco on migration, borders and the meaning of love and marriage in this context. With colleagues, she founded a new medium at the interface of anthropology and journalism: The aim of this project is to reach a wider audience with anthropological research insights.
Previously he worked for ActionAid and WaterAid and as a consultant, i. He published widely on economic and social issues, covering especially violence and conflict and water and sanitation.
A lifelong rights activist, she was forced to go to an "education center". During her imprisonment she became an active member of "Ladies in White". As an independent journalist she was imprisoned in "Manto Negro". In she was forced to join her partner Jiménez Posadas in exile. She currently works as a journalist for Miscelaneas de Cuba, an independent online magazine, and Cubanet in order to help fighting the human rights abuses in Cuba. His main research interests include Media and Development, and Media Innovations.
Frank Habann worked as a lecturer at several universities across Europe and has published widely on Media Economy. Friederike Habermann is an author, activist and independent academic, as well as an economist and historian. She holds a PhD in political science. Yazan Halwani is a Lebanese street artist based in Beirut.
He specialises in social media. He was born and raised in Tunisia, studied in Kaiserslautern and has worked in France, Luxemburg and Germany. Dimensions of a War of Annihilation Steve Harknett has worked in the field of disability and development for more than ten years, mainly in Cambodia and East Africa. Being a keen long-distance runner he organised sports events in Cambodia, and became interested in the role sport can play in social development. Inklusion durch Sport — eine magische Pille?
Benno Haupt holds a diploma in Geography. The content of his thesis was protected area management and the dealing with conflicts with a regional focus on a protected area in Bolivia.
For over more than 15 years, Javier has collaborated with different UN agencies in Mexico and Central America, designing and coordinating cooperation projects in the region and working on drugs and crime prevention, capacity development, and knowledge management. He received the Right Livelihood Award in for designing and successfully implementing a biological control programme to prevent the outbreak of a new pest threatening the cassava root in Africa.
Ben Herson is the founder and creative director of Nomadic Wax — a fair trade music, film and events production company. Ben is also an educator with ten years of classroom experience in public and private schools and lectures regularly at institutions of higher learning. In , Ben co-founded the Trinity International Hip-Hop festival, the first international hip-hop festival in the United States, and began touring to colleges and universities throughout the United States.
In , he developed an award-winning seven part documentary series on youth, hip-hop, and politics in West Africa titled "African Underground: Democracy in Dakar", which was screened at film festivals and theatres internationally. Ben holds a B. Benoît, who is a long-term Latin-America enthusiast, has made several trips throughout almost all of South America.
He has reported on coca growers in Bolivia, the crisis in Argentina, the new evangelical movements in Brazil and the history of the dictatorships in the Condor Plan countries. After finishing her Masters degree in she currently holds a scholarship at the Leuphana University Lüneburg and works on her doctorate in media culture, in which she researches new forms of the merging of men and machine. Verena Hölzl works as a freelance journalist in Myanmar since Her work has been published by dpa, Spiegel Online, Deutsche Welle and tageszeitung.
She writes mainly about the democratization of the former military dictatorship. He is an Ashoka Fellow, a keen gardener and one of the founders of New Lion Brewery in Totnes and a Director of Atmos Totnes, a very ambitious community-led development project. He tweets as robintransition. He was part of a team awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for newspaper coverage of the hurricane and has been interviewed on most major television and radio news shows.
Annabelle Houdret works as Senior Project Manager at adelphi. Her research and consulting activities focus on water and other natural resources as well as on development and security with particular emphasis on water conflicts and policies in the MENA region, Africa and Europe.
He is interested in issues of infrastructure, sport and development. From to he was employed at Phoenix, Bonn. Currently he works as a freelance and online journalist. In he was living in Lima where he did an internship at Mares Pedagogía school.
He published various studies on value chains on different products including chocolate, mobile phones and cars. Additionally he took part in multi-stakeholder conferences and is member of the advisory boards. She is currently working as a reporter for Radio Azadio Radio Liberty in Kabul, Afghanistan and as a freelance reporter for the blog Afghanistan Today. Fawzia Ihsan is a freelance journalist for the online magazine"Afghanistan Today", which publishes reports of 15 journalists, photographers and film-makers from all over Afghanistan.
She holds Masters degrees in Business management and Economics. Her fields of research include assessing the contributions of businesses towards sustainable development and corporate sustainability management. Before becoming a researcher she worked for a regional economic development company in Germany. Julian holds a master's degree in political science from the University of Heidelberg.
Kyle James is an American journalist, editor and media trainer. He holds a master's degree in journalism from the University of California, Berkeley and has filed radio, print and online stories for European, US and Asian media outlets. He also works in media development and has extensive training experience in Asia, calling Cambodia home for several years. Jackline Jazrawi is captain of the Palestinian national women's soccer team. She plays for the Diyar Club from the city of Bethlehem, where she also serves as a trainer and sports coordinator.
She joined the club when it was founded in , and has played as a defender for the national team ever since. Timothy Jenkin is a writer and long-time political activist. He was involved in the anti-apartheid struggle in the s and 80s and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment for his activities, but escaped from captivity after 18 months.
He lived in exile in the UK from until when he returned to South Africa after the unbanning of political organisations. During this period he worked as a writer and trained activists for the ANC underground. His research focus is on international economic relations and governance. Brendon Johnson is a co-founder of the Baladini project.
He has experience working in all aspects of the social entrepreneurship field for over 10 years. Previously to Baladini, Brendon worked with the Nile Project, an organization that employs music, education, and social innovation programs to promote transboundary peace.
Before that, he worked with the Egyptian-based incubator Nahdet el Mahrousa where he consulted with over 25 social enterprises and nonprofits on issues of financial sustainability and strategic planning. He has also worked with Fortune companies in developing socially-responsible programing for emerging markets. In , Brendon founded, built, and managed the grassroots organization Aid to South Africa.
Selina Juul has published a leftovers cookbook, written over 80 articles on food waste among them with two ministers and is a speaker at many international conferences, among them TEDxCopenhagen. Bijan Kafi worked for non-profit organizations and social entreprises in Georgia, Egypt and other African countries.
He writes on topics as civic chance in developing countries and the influence of modern technologies on this chance. She is in charge of programmes on environment and disaster prevention.
She is a lecturer at the University of Hull and published widely on economic and political issue, especially related to cyber conflict. Sina Kamala Kaufmann is the author of Politik im Web, which looks at the social and political impacts of digital and technological progress.
At the moment she researches and writes about utopian futures and works as a freelance communications specialist for tech companies and development organizations. Camino Kavanagh is currently pursuing a Ph. Her research is centred on transformation in strategic affairs, with a specific focus on how cyberspace has evolved into a domain of strategic competition between states and she engages in different initiatives and projects on this subject.
He has been a visiting researcher at The Edmund A. Hammaad has also worked as a journalist for two of the leading English language newspapers in Pakistan, "The News International" and "Daily Dawn". Emmie Kio works with Plan International Kenya, an organization that focuses on ensuring children rights are realized in societies all over the world. Besides, she is a an agriculture crusader, a change agent and a trained social reporter using social media to inform about the benefits of agriculture in bridging the unemployment gap for youths in Kenya.
Olga worked as freelance translator, interpreter and contributor for the New York based lifestyle and culture magazine Jing Daily. Volker Kitz studied law in Cologne and New York and is an active member of the bar.
For years he worked as a successful lobbyist for companies in the media. Many current laws are based in part on his influence. Today he lives in Munich as an author and teaches the art of persuasion. Sarah holds a Master's degree in political science. She was chief editor of Digital Development Debates from to She carried out several studies about CSR and partnerships. She is a doctorale candidate at the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt.
The story of a liberation, available only in German , published by Campus Verlag in He holds a degree in law and social sciences from Frankfurt University.
He received his doctoral degree from Frankfurt University as well and qualified as a professor at Kassel University, Germany, with a habilitation treatise on "water and society". Her interests are in ICT for development, media studies and journalism. She gathered her first hands-on experience in the development context as a guest teacher in Indonesia and worked with the German broadcaster WDR.
Prior to joining the ICC, she spent 12 years as a state and federal prosecutor in Germany. Since , she is a member of the judiciary examining board of the Land Saxony-Anhalt for state examinations. Petra Kneuer participated in the Minds for Change conference: Minds for Change conference Video statement by Petra Kneuer: Tobias Knobloch worked in IT business for several years, then wrote a doctoral thesis on thought experiments and computer simulations.
After that he worked as a political consultant and co-founded a social software startup. Spare time is filled with family and discussions about the chances and risks of digitization. Alice is a freelance journalist and translator. Andrea Kolb is an experienced marketing expert and social entrepreneur. She studied economics and cultural management. After having worked for different agencies in Frankfurt, London and Monaco, she founded the agency "Calliope-inspiring brand communicaton" in Munich in In she moved to Berlin.
Under the positioning of "Beyond Fashion", ABURY combines the desire for style and ethics, exclusiveness and sustainability in a unique and innovative concept. Wolfgang Kraushaar, born in , holds a Ph. He worked at the Didactics Centre at Frankfurt University from to , completed his dissertation on structural changes at German universities in , and has worked at the Hamburg Institute for Social Research since His research focuses on protest movements and modern terrorism.
Dr Kraushaar was a guest professor at Beijing Normal University in He is currently working on a monograph entitled "Nacktprotest! Zwischen Zivilisationsgewinn und Schamverlust" Naked Protest! Between civilisational progress and a loss of shame. Stefan Kreutzberger, born in , has a degree in political science and works as a freelance journalist, author and media consultant in Cologne. His work focuses on environmental and consumer issues along with development policy.
He is the author of the book "Die Essensvernichter" lit.: He recently partnered with an association to found the "Foodsharing" project, an online platform where people can exchange their leftover food. Matthias Kroll is economist and participated in founding a consulting organisation in environmental management and got his doctorate in monetary theory and policy. He intensively explores how state spending could be financed by the central bank through money creation without causing inflation.
Her main area of reserch is water ressources and land use, and she coordinates the CuveWater project. Rahul Kumar is a Delhi-based development journalist. He writes about and photographs issues related to NGOs, the environment, development and urban affairs. He has undergone training with Radio Nederlands Wereldomroep and is currently working with an international non-profit organisation.
Anthony Langat is a freelance journalist based in Kenya reporting on human rights issues, governance, security and climate change. Additional roles over the course of her career: Peter Lanzet is a social scientist and works as development officer for the Church Development Service in Bonn Evengelischer Entwicklungsdienst — EED for the "development finance and debt relief ".
He has a broad expertise in the field of fan work. Currently her work focuses on biodiversity governance by indigenous peoples and local communities, and on access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and benefit sharing. Jure Leko studied ethnology, sociology, and geography at the University of Bonn.
He obtained his Master of Arts in , and was later awarded a doctoral thesis stipend by the University of Bonn. He was subsequently employed as a researcher at the Institute for Political Science and Sociology. The Special Adviser leads and coordinates the efforts of the United Nations system to promote understanding and support for sport as aninstrument for development and peace, and encourages dialogue, collaboration and partnerships in this area.
Willi Lemke has over 25 years of professional experience in both sport and politics. Throughout his career he has been a dedicated advocate for the importance of sport in education and society. He notably engaged in fundraising, the initiation and facilitation of various international relief projects. Markos Lemma is specialised in ICT and innovation management consultancy. He is a co-founder of the iceaddis innovation hubs network in Ethiopia.
Markos has been working for GIZ since as a technical advisor and ran the ePrivateSector Development project until as a project coordinator. He is a blogger and GlobalVoices author. He speaks in different conferences about innovation hubs, tech communities, mobile technology, social media and blogging. He also organises different tech events in Addis Ababa. He works in political education, journalism and activism where his central focus is on the sociology of religion, post-colonialism and universal basic income.
In recent years, he has been working as a consultant for private companies as well as non-profit organisations. He has written extensively on the Swat Pukhtun and on the Middle East. Other topics include authenticity, radical social movements, American culture, charisma, psychological anthropology, belief, and emotion. His thesis was about social entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid. Previously he studied philosophy, linguistics and business administration at the University of Stuttgart.
In he joined the Hamburg Foundation for Business Ethics as a project manager for educational projects. In he launched Glovico. Lisa Ma is a speculative designer and researcher. She specialises in combining the fringe, ethnographic research process and public perception to produce unusual platforms of engagement.
She is most recently a global shaper for the World Economic Forum. She founded the 'Fringe Benefits' projects to convert design methods into surprising services to broaden our perspective on a future involving the fringes. These appear as spa therapies in cat ladies' homes, doorstep water filtration sessions by conspiracy theorists and historical village tours for stranded passengers by Heathrow activists.
For the "Farmification" project, Lisa Ma stayed in a joystick factory in Shenzhen, China and dived into the intimate lives of migrant workers. After observing how the vertiginous waves of production renewal have pushed the workers to the fringes, she created a part-time farming scheme where the migrant community combine farming with manufacturing to act as a buffer between innovation cycles.
His main areas of work are the interlinkages and between natural resources, violent conflict and peace on all levels of society. He studied political science, sociology, history and economics at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main. Barbara Mabanza is the founder of KrauseLocke. After interning with the Development Policy Forum of GIZ in Berlin she is currently conducting field research for her master thesis on real estate markets in Brazil and the formalization processes in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro.
His recent projects include documentaries about indigenous people as well as music videos. Julia Manske is a researcher at the Stiftung Neue Verantwortung, a Berlin based think tank, where she works at the intersection of digital policies and global development. Julia is also a research affiliate with Data-Pop Alliance, a global alliance on data and development co-created by various academic institutions such as the MIT Media Lab. Alvin Marcelo studied to be a general and trauma surgeon and currently heads the University of the Philippines Manila National Telehealth Center.
Oliver Märker is Managing Director at Zebralog GmbH, which consults with public agencies in the planning and realization of e-participatory procedures on local, regional, and federal level. Oliver Märker studied geography, sociology, and psychology at the University of Bonn. He received a PhD from the University of Oldenburg in for his doctoral thesis: Helen was previously a researcher in medical molecular biology, holding positions in Manchester, Cologne and Aachen.
Jens Martens has been director of the European office of Global Policy Forum since its foundation in late He was a member of the Coordinating Committee of Social Watch.
He teaches the history of the mafia in different universities in Central America. He has travelled extensively throughout Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica identifying the characteristics of the ritualistic violence produced by Mexican organized crime organizations. Ahmad Masour is a psychologist, community coach and author. Ahmad has been living in Germany for eight years now. He specialises in topics such as integration, radicalisation, racism, anti-Semitism and pedagogy for migrant families.
In Israel, Ahmad has worked for several youth projects promoting peaceful relations between Jews and Arabs. Ahmad studied psychology, sociology and philosophy at University of Tel Aviv and clinical psychology at the Humboldt University Berlin as a Goethe Institute fellow. His works have been displayed in more shared exhibitions, 80 individual exhibitions in 51 countries. He is author of nine books with photographic essays.
She worked in America Latina and Albania in rural participatory appraisal for development projects. She has been coordinating the strengthening of the ILC Latin America platform composed by land-concerned organizations and the expansion of the global Land Reporting Initiative. Annalisa is a citizen of Italy where she earned her master in Sustainable Project Planning and her university degree in Tropical Agriculture at the University of Florence.
As Prime Minister of Niger, Ibrahim Assane Mayaki played a catalyst role in enhancing the social dialogue in the country. He initiated the creation of relevant technical committees in charge of the negotiations with social partners.
Next to his political career Mayaki has been professor in Niger, Venezuela and Paris. He also created and led the Public Policy Analysis Circle Cercle d'analyse des pol itiques publiques a think-tank focusing on health and education policy.
Morrigan McCarthy is a documentary photographer and writer currently circumnavigating the world to document the daily lives of twenty-somethings. From until he worked in a research project on seed systems in Tanzania and Namibia.
His areas of expertise are development studies, social transformation of smallholder livelihoods in Sub-Sahara Africa as well as qualitative research methods. As a freelance consultant, Jonas did research in various fields, for example on social and economic causes of malnutrition in Malawi and on ageing society in Germany. Since , he is co-editor for the online-journal 'conditio humana. Beiträge zum Verlust von Leib und Welt'. Before, she worked for Skateistan in Kambodia and Afghanistan.
Before joining Human Rights Watch, Michalski worked in journalism for more than 20 years, specializing in news and current affairs. He served as managing editor, presenter, and London bureau chief for ProSiebenSat1, one of Germany's leading broadcasters. In his position, Michalski will work towards giving Germany a stronger voice in support of human rights.
Michalski graduated from Hamburg University, where he studied history and politics. He holds a degree in science of forestry. His research lines include secular trends and biological and socioeconomic determinants of nutritional deficiencies and obesity, food processing in the food system and human health, and food and nutrition programs and policies evaluation.
He conducted field research and project evaluations in several countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. His research focuses on transnational security governance and violence with a regional focus on Latin America. His most recent publications include: Ross Murphy, 23, is a Rockstar Youth mentee. He launched the first ever Green Deal comparison business:.
Kageni Muse is a journalist based in Nairobi. She has worked for Kenya's two largest newspapers, Nation and The Standard, as a writer and editor in the last nine years specialising in women, business, urbanisation and social issues. She is passionate about empowerment, travel, faith and families. She has made Bonn her home for the past 10 years and joined DW's editoral staff in Basse Mutahi is an online journalist in Kenya working in the digital division of Nation Media Group, the leading media house in the East African region.
Fighting for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex LGBTI people in Uganda, Kasha Jacqueline Nabagesera is one of the most courageous and outspoken human rights activists in Africa. Operating within a hostile and repressive environment, Nabagesera has shed light on human rights violations, and has successfully used the judicial system to advance LGBTI rights. She has overcome threats to campaign against repressive laws and uses a range of creative and innovative tools to continue breaking myths and stereotypes surrounding LGBTI people in Uganda and elsewhere.
Leila Nachawati is a Spanish-Syrian communication strategist and human rights activist with a special focus on the Middle East and North Africa. She writes for several media like El Mundo, Eldiario. Follow her on Twitter:. She is based in Kampala, Uganda.
Reema oversees self help groups SHG , co-operatives and 15 federations totaling , members. She negotiated the first ever IFAD loan to rebuild lives of 60, earthquake affected rural women and is running post conflict reconstruction for 40, members affected by riots. She is leading a rehabilitation programme in Afghanistan and in Srilanka and a vocational training in agro and rural livelihood security; she is expanding activities of the Trade Facilitation Centre and heads the ICT cell to connect technological information with the farm women.
Reema Nanavaty initiated the food security covering one million households through its rural distribution network, named RUDI, where women farmers and labour trade their agro-produce with each other. Furthermore, Reema is spearheading the Hariyali—Green Energy and Livelihoods Initiative to provide 2,00, mostly farm women access renewable energy tools of cookstoves and solar lights. Anirudh Narla is a tech startup enthusiast who did his bachelors in Computer Engineering and Entrepreneurship in Singapore and is currently helping Entrepreneurs in Ghana build their billion-dollar company.
During his free time he is seeking out new adventures, travelling and trying his hands at photography. Lundquist Neubauer is a sociologist and media scientist who works as a public relations manager.
Since , Ampion has organised venture buses through 15 African countries, bringing young African and international entrepreneurs in contact with potential investors. To date Ampion has helped create over 30 new companies. International start-up founders can register for the Ampion bus programme at. There she built up and managed different units. As Senior Consultant she looked after clients in finance, health, tourism and mobility. Beforehand she ran her own brand communications agency.
She took over the management of the media and communications department in the WFC head office in January Charles Newman is a trained architect and has worked across numerous regions of East Africa. Susanne Nickel works as a freelance journalist and for the Deutsche Welle in Bonn.
She is responsible for online editing and press and public relations as part of the preparations for the Global Media Forum. Since she has run her own journalist agency sun media. Susanne Nickel has also worked for a number of radio stations, government administrations and institutions in the German state of North Rhine—Westphalia, and the federal government in Berlin.
The sun media agency offers a range of services including website development, print media design of all kinds, and concept development for public relations. Susanne Nickel specializes in the environmental sector with a focus on sustainable development in particular. Elizabeth Norman is a freelance writer and regular correspondent for the organisation Safe World for Women specialising in human rights, conflict and development.
Elizabeth is particularly interested in issues relating to children in conflict, especially the underreported issue of child piracy.
Seember oversees public procurement monitoring activities among civil society organizations and professional bodies across Nigeria. Seember is also one of 17 sprinters, convened by the World Bank Institute, to author and champion open contracting practices across the globe.
Previously, Seember has been engaged as script writer and has assisted in the production of radio drama and magazine programs for aimed toward stimulating social change. Seember has a personal interest in actively contributing to the deployment and use of appropriate ICT tools that stimulate and support decentralized media; thus, increasing the space for individuals to participate in governance at various levels and is devoted to working in spheres that promote the values of democracy.
She previously worked as a newspaper journalist in Melbourne, Australia. After travelling to Uganda on behalf of Oikocredit earlier in , she met microfinance clients and cooperative members from rural and urban areas. He is a specialist in issues of international migration, refugees and human trafficking. Ogheneruno Okiomah, is a Nigerian-American designer, social-entrepreneur and architectural educator.
She specializes in ecosystem design, the nexus of economic development and sustainable design. Her thesis analyses the transformative role of private sustainability standards in the cocoa value chain. Franziska has broad experience with participatory research on policy effects and sustainable rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal, South Africa, and Uganda.
Gorik Ooms is a human rights lawyer and a public health scholar. During most of his professional career he worked with Médecins Sans Frontières Belgium, of which he was the executive director from August until June Since he is an adjunct professor of law at Georgetown University, and since a visiting scholar at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp.
He has been involved in several projects towards the realization of the rights of people with disability. Leny van Oyen, a Dutch national, has some 25 years of professional experience, with particular emphasis on private sector development related programme design, management, monitoring and evaluation. End she started a second career, created her own firm Enterpride Consulting and has carried out a range of private sector and trade development related assignments in Africa and Asia for different clients.
She works at a freelance journalist for online media and as a freelance translator for Global Voices. Her main focus is on the Arab world, particularly on the topic of mass media and political and social change in the MENA region. She has dedicated her univerity career to the study of Arabic to learn which she has travelled to Tunisia and Syria. She is now intern researcher at the European Institute of the Mediterranean Barcelona. Sonja Peteranderl is a freelance journalist who reports from abroad on politics, the economy and digital trends for print and online media such as Spiegel Online, the Tagesspiegel and the Freitag weekly.
Together with journalist Julia Jaroschewski, also a foreign correspondent programme scholarship recipient, she has been following developments in the Brazilian favelas in the run-up to the World Cup with the BuzzingCities multimedia project since In they moved to the Rocinha favela in Rio de Janeiro to blog from the favela live.
Together they are also investigating the influence of the internet on the slums. As a Senior Programme Manager at GIZ former InWEnt , Thomas Petermann is responsible for capacity building programmes in the fields of natural resources management, including water development, nature conservation and integrated land use planning.
Barbara Ilse is an artist and cultural anthropologist. She was born in Lima, Peru in Growing up surrounded by painting, photography, dancing and theater, artist practice has always been an integral part of her development. Today she is an independent artist and lecturer in Sao Paulo. Before becoming Deputy Director of the Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, he was Head of the Regional Policy Division that covers policy analysis on urban development, rural development, regional competitiveness and public governance.
Pezzini has also served as an advisor in the field of economic development, industrial organisation and regional economics in international organisations and on think tanks e. Pezzini started his career in the government offices of the Emilia-Romagna Region. Alexander works as a filmmaker e. He studied dramatic writing, screenwriting and film production in Berlin and Los Angeles. He wrote theatre plays e. EU Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs is an experienced Latvian politician who has occupied key positions in both the national and European political fields.
In that capacity, he led the development of a more competitive, sustainable and secure European energy system, which is one of the crowning achievements of the Barroso Commission. In recognition of his leadership in European energy policy, in , the Energy Efficiency Global Forum presented him the Energy Efficiency Visionary Awards for his "outstanding contributions to the advancement of energy efficiency".
Before joining the Commission, Andris Piebalgs pursued a political career, operating strategic ministerial portfolios, and helping Latvia to play its role in the EU. Video statement at YouTube. Nadine Piefer is a Ph. Her research and consultancy work focuses on new development partners, triangular cooperation and energy relations with the BICS. His work focuses on strengthening quality journalism especially in community media.
He has also worked for the Deutsche Welle and Deutschlandfunk as an editor and moderator specialising in Latin American issues. Since he has been working on links between the security and development complexes along with questions of fragility and armed conflicts in the periphery.
Together with Ibrahim Bangura he studied at Fourah Bay College in Freetown, Sierra Leone; they were students in the same place, but in different centuries. Having been responsible for the overall coordination of InWEnt's German Capacity Building International rural development division and beforehand of InWEnt's water portfolio, she has been involved in the elaboration of various policy concepts of the German Development Cooperation and bilateral agreements with the German partner countries.
In this context, she closely cooperates with the World Bank Institute, the Arab Water Council and several bilateral donors, too.
To date his work has primarily been on financial and agricultural projects in West Africa. He often collaborates with local film makers and lay actors. He holds advanced degrees in political science and journalism. In addition to films for DC, he also works on scenic projects, music videos and documentaries, and holds workshops. His research has addressed a range of cross-national issues around corporate social responsibility, not least differences in approaches to CSR between firms from developed and developing countries.
After his Postdoc Studies in Cologne and Strasbourg he inter alia worked at the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and did his postdoctoral studies at the University of Giessen.
He was a spokesperson for the German Ministry of Defence from to Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, and worked as expert on security issues for the daily "Stuttgarter Zeitung". Universal Love has been promoting ethical fashion and fabrics since and supports young fashion designers by organising small showroom events in Paris called "free markets".
Recently, Universal Love has decided to expand the idea of "free markets" by also arranging these events for young artists and musicians. The Ethical Fashion Show was founded in and is the first international fair dedicated to ethical fashion. Philipp Raasch has been involved in parkour since , and teaches parkour for the ParkourONE interest group. He is a certified educator and studied sport, health and prevention at the German Sport University Cologne.
Franz Josef Radermacher is professor for databases and artificial intelligence at Ulm University. His major fields of research include globalization challenges, learning organisations, risk management, responsibilities of persons and systems, environmentally compatible mobility, sustainable development, and the problem of overpopulation.
Radermacher has been honoured with numerous prizes and awards for his work.