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The input impedance on the Craftsman "" meter was 7. Besides changing the props are there any computer adjustments re-program or anyhting else i can do to make it more altitute friendly. This summer was the first time we left it in a slip, fresh water lake. I had Boattown change the oil and do a quick check. I am located about 30 miles from the station's transmitter.

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Most modern phyla appear. Paleo-Tethys Ocean begins forming. Ice age begins and causes mass extinction which ends period. Complex life continues diversifying. First large reefs appear. Mollusks proliferate and diversify. Nautiloids are apex predators. First fossils of land plants recovered from Ordovician sediments.

Period ends with first great mass extinction of complex life. Hot, shallow seas dominate biomes. Climate and sea level changes cause minor extinctions. Reefs recover and expand. Fish begin to develop jaws. First invasions of land by animals. First vascular plants appear. Continents closing to form Pangaea, ice age begins at end of Devonian and cause mass extinction , possibly initiated by first forests sequestering carbon.

First vertebrates invade land. Atmospheric oxygen levels highest ever, likely due to carbon sequestration by coal swamps. Ice age increases in extent, causing collapse of rainforest. First permanent land colonization by vertebrates. Fungus appears that digests lignin. Great mountain-building and volcanism as Pangaea forms, and its formation initiates the greatest mass extinction in eon of complex life.

Synapsid reptiles dominate land. Conifer forests first appear. Pangaea begins to break up. Greenhouse Earth begins and lasts the entire Mesozoic Era. Stony corals appear as reefs slowly recover. Northern continents split from southern continents. Atlantic Ocean begins to form. Sea levels dramatically rise. Continents continue to separate.

Asteroid impact drives non-bird dinosaurs extinct and ends the Mesozoic Era. Chewing dinosaurs become prominent. Forests near the poles. Rudist bivalves displace coral reefs, but go extinct before the end-Cretaceous extinction. Greenhouse Earth conditions still prevail, and an anomalous warming occurred to end the epoch. Mammals grow and diversify to fill empty niches left behind by reptiles. Warmest epoch in hundreds of millions of years, but began cooling midway into epoch, beginning Icehouse Earth conditions.

Europe collides with Asia, and Asian mammals displace European mammals. A Golden Age of Life on Earth, when life thrived all the way to the poles. Cooling in Late Eocene drives warm-climate species to extinction.

Early whales die out , replaced by whales adapted to new ocean biomes. First half of epoch is warm, and called The Golden Age of Mammals. Apes appear and spread throughout Africa and Eurasia. Apes migrate back to Africa in cooling, while some remain in Southeast Asia. Earth continues to cool, and land bridge of North and South America initiates mass extinction of South American mammals and initiates current ice age. First stone tools made at end of epoch.

Mammals already cold-adapted, and relatively few extinctions, until the rise of humans. Interglacial period in current ice age, and recent and probably human-caused warming may extend the interglacial period.

Mass extinctions of large animals happen wherever humans begin to appear. By the 21 st century, the Sixth Mass Extinction in the eon of complex life appears to be underway, entirely caused by humans. First major ice age begins snowball Earth event.

Orthodox hypotheses for the beginning of the universe , and formation and composition of the Sun and its planets Sun's influence on Earth, which is primarily an energy influence Earth's composition and early development Earth's geophysical and geochemical processes , and their interactions with life processes In the tables above, some dates have ranges as such old dates often have relatively thin evidence supporting them, which can be interpreted in different ways.

Those dates will be adjusted as the scientific evidence and theories develop. As I was writing this essay, a study was published that may have pushed back the beginning of the Great Oxygenation Event by several hundred million years. After t he Big Bang , when matter began to coalesce, virtually all mass in the universe was contained in hydrogen atoms, with traces of the next two lightest elements: According to the Standard Model , atoms have no mass by themselves, but the field that gives rise to the Higgs Boson provides the mass.

That fusion released a great deal of primordial Big Bang energy, and fusion powers stars. Nuclei larger than the simplest hydrogen nucleus contain neutrons as well as protons. As the name implies, neutrons have no net electric charge, but have about the same mass as a proton an electron has less than a thousandth the mass of a proton, so virtually all the mass in atoms is provided by its protons and neutrons. Radioactive decay into daughter isotopes is mediated by the weak nuclear force.

In the smaller stars that eventually become white dwarfs , the primary fusion process creates oxygen as its heaviest element. Several differe nt fusion processes have been identified, and stars from about half the size of the Sun to about nine times larger can undergo a process known as s-process fusion late in their lives, and that process has created about half of the elements heavier than iron; bismuth is the heaviest element created by the process.

Those heavier elements are eventually blown from the star by its stellar wind as it becomes a white dwarf. Stars with more than nine times the mass of the Sun undergo a different process at the end of their lives.

That collapse creates the pressures needed to fuse those other atoms heavier than iron, including the heaviest elements. Uranium is the heaviest naturally produced element. In an instant, r-process fusion occurs. When a star becomes a supernova, those heavy elements are sprayed into the galactic neighborhood by a stupendous release of fusion energy. Over the subsequent eons, gravity will cause the remnants of stars, and hydrogen that had not yet become a star or did not fuse within a star, to coalesce into an accretion disk , and a new star with its attendant planets will form.

The Sun will take more than ten billion years to live its life cycle before becoming a white dwarf. Large stars burn much more quickly and can become supernovas after as little as ten million years of main-sequence burning. The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk.

In a mere 50 million years after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years. Those that began their lives inside the frost line were rocky, and those outside the frost line were generally comprised of lighter elements.

Those planetesimals bombarded the forming planets and increased their mass. Other planetesimals were ejected from the solar system as the gravity of the Sun and planets whipped them around. Venus and Mars were also bombarded with the lighter elements and may have plentiful water long ago, but only Earth retained its water. The biggest colli sion between Earth and its neighbors may well have created the Moon , and although the currently prevailing hypothesis has plenty of problems, the other hypotheses have more.

At this time, dark energy and dark matter have never been observed. Any theory that relies on unobserved phenomena is going to be highly provisional, and I consider it unlikely that the prevailing cosmological theories a century from now will much resemble those of today.

The scale of the universe, from its largest to smallest objects, is truly difficult to imagine, and this animation can help provide some perspective. The scale of geologic time strains human brains with its immensity. The journey of life on Earth has been greatly affected by geophysical and geochemical processes as well as influences from beyond Earth, such as:.

It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others. Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms.

Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Tectonic plates can collide, such as the collision of India into Asia , which formed the Himalayan Mountains and raised the Tibetan Plateau. That may have contributed to the ice age that we currently experience, although other studies indicate that the carbon removal may have been more due to the burial of organic matter.

The debate is continuing as the complex dynamics are subjected to scientific investigation. It is already nearly PPM and rising fast. Ultrav iolet light breaks water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen.

Scientists believe that that happened to Venus and Mars, although Venus may have never cooled enough to form liquid water; it split in the atmosphere and hydrogen then escaped to space. On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space. Photosynthesis led to atmospheric oxygen, which led to the ozone layer that helped prevent the splitting of water, and atmospheric oxygen recaptured hydrogen that would have otherwise escaped to space, which prevented the oceans from disappearing, which probably led to plate tectonics, which led to the formation of granitic continents , which led to land-based life.

In short, life made Earth more conducive to life. That is the most important impact of life on geophysical and geochemical processes, but far from the only one; others will be explored in this essay. Geology in the West is considered to have begun during the Classic Greek period , and Persian and Chinese scholars furthered the discipline during the medieval period.

There is a constant upwelling of mass from the mantle, riding those energy currents. Three bya, the continents may have only had about a quarter of the mass that they do today. The granites formed when basalt was exposed to water , and the process partly replaced heavier iron with lighter sodium and potassium.

Water also became incorporated into the rocks, generally where the heavier oceanic crust was subducted below the lighter continental crust. Those tectonic plates have been likened to the surface of a pot of boiling oatmeal.

Plates can collide and form mountains, and they can pull apart and expose the hot interior, which spews out in volcanism at the edges of tectonic plates , including ridges in the oceans. The mantle is thought to be mostly oxygen and silicon, and the remainder is largely composed of the lighter alkali and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium. Those mantle metals are primarily bound in oxides.

The crust also is almost solely comprised of oxides. Land-based biomass is about times greater than ocean-based biomass.

Life as we know it seems to be rare and delicate, found nowhere else in our solar system so far, and few places seem promising for it to exist. Earth rec eives less than one-billionth of the energy that the Sun produces. That infinitesimal proportion captured by photosynthesis is the basis for nearly all life on Earth.

Planets with weak magnetic fields, such as Mars, are believed to be vulnerable to the solar wind stripping away their atmospheres. If Earth did not have a magnetic field, its ozone layer may have been stripped away , which may have led to the extinction of complex life on Earth, if it would have ever appeared at all.

The fact that complex life exists on Earth seems to be a miracle of circumstance. A naked human would not have survived for a minute on the Hadean Earth.

The Moon was probably created during the Hadean Eon when a planet-sized mass collided with Earth. Appearance of life on Earth , and its energetic basis Role of DNA , enzymes , ATP , and membranes Basic aspects of life Biochemistry , geochemical cycles , and entropy Respiration and photosynthesis Split of bacteria and archaea Oxygenic photosynthesis Formation of the continents, plate tectonics Great Oxygenation Event , and formation of the iron deposits , the first ice age , and formation of the ozone layer Development of the complex cell and its energy centers - the mitochondria - and mitochondrial DNA Development of aerobic respiration Free radicals and cell death Formation of supercontinents Evolutionary struggles , the appearance of plants , sexual reproduction , grazing , and predation One-way path of evolution Above a ll else, life is an energy acquisition process.

All life exploits the potential energy in various atomic and molecular arrangements, or captures energy directly, as in photosynthesis. Early life ex ploited the potential energy of chemicals. The chemosynthetic ideal is capturing chemicals fresh to new environments that have yet to react with other chemicals. The currently most-accepted hypothesis has life first appearing on Earth about 3. Life had to be opportunistic and quick in order to capture that energy before other molecules did.

When life first appeared on Earth, the evolutionary process that led to humanity began. The USA's population has more doubt about evolution than any other Western nation , and that is primarily because Biblical literalism is still strong here. In all other Western nations, there is virtually no controversy over evolution being a fact of existence, and those nations view the controversy over evolution in the USA with befuddlement. Many molecules with the same atomic structure can form mirror images of themselves.

That mirror-image phenomenon is called chirality. In nature, such mirror images occur randomly, but life prefers one mirror image over the other. In all life on Earth, proteins are virtually without exception left-handed, while sugars are right-handed.

All other lineages died out the likely answer, and there was probably hundreds of millions of years of evolution on Earth before LUCA lived , or they may have all descended from the same original organism. As we will see, this is far from the only instance when such seminal events are considered to have probably happened only once. Also, the unique structure of DNA and many enzymes are common to all life, and they did not have to form the way that they did.

That they came through different ancestral lines is extremely unlikely. The critic al feature of earliest life had to be a way to reproduce itself, and DNA is common to all cellular life today. The DNA that exists today was almost certainly not a feature of the first life.

If w e think about activation energy at the molecular level, it is the energy that crashes molecules into each other, and if they are crashed into each other fast enough and hard enough, the reaction becomes more likely. But that is an incredibly inefficient way to do it.

Proteins make the process far easier, and those proteins are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and they do it as in the above analogy but as if a person entered that room, picked up the key, and inserted it into the lock. That took far less effort than shaking up the room a million times. Enzymes are like hands that grab two molecules and bring them into alignment so that the key inserts into the lock.

The lock-and-key analogy is the standard way to explain enzymes to non-scientists. Life would never have grown beyond some microscopic curiosities without the assistance that enzymes provide.

Almost a ll enzymes are proteins, which are generally huge molecules with intricate folds. The animation of human glyoxalase below depicts a standard enzyme author is WillowW at Wikipedia , and the zinc ions that make it work are the purple balls. Enzymes lo ok like Rube Goldberg-ish contraptions when their function is considered: Proteins have a four-level structure , and the second level is held in place by hydrogen bonds. An enzyme can catalyze millions of reactions per second.

Adenosine triphosphate "ATP" is a coenzyme used to fuel all known biological processes. The human body produces its own weight in ATP each day. Cyanide kills by disabling a key enzyme that produces ATP, which induces an energy shortage at the cellular level. There are two primary aspects of life, and what can be observed in human civilization are often only more complex iterations of those aspects, which are:. Life harnessed energy so that it could manipulate matter to create itself;.

Life created information so that it could reproduce itself. Entropy is another important concept for this essay. Entropy is, in its essence, the tendency of hot things to cool off. The concept is now introduced to students as energy dispersal. Even though science really does not know what energy is , it can measure its effect. At the molecular level, entropy is the tendency of mass to become disordered over time, as the random motion of molecules spreads in collisions with other molecules, until the interacting molecules have the same temperature.

Life had to overcome entropy in order to exist, as it brought order out of disorder and maintained it while alive, and it takes energy to do that. The prevailing theory is that net entropy can only increase, and life has to create more entropy in its surroundings so that it can reduce entropy internally and produce and maintain the order that sustains itself.

Of those key elements necessary for life as we know it , the most diverse is carbon, with that half-filled outer electron shell. Carbon can form one, two, three, and four bonds with itself and so forms the most diverse bonds with itself of all elements, and an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to carbon, called organic chemistry.

Organic molecules are by far the largest known to science. In the eyes of an organic chemist, burning fossil hydrocarbons to fuel our industrial world is like making Einstein dig ditches or making Pavarotti wash dishes for a living. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the most vital elements for life after carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

In its pure state in nature, nitrogen, like hydrogen and oxygen, is a diatomic molecule. Hydrogen in nature is single-bonded to itself, oxygen is double-bonded, and nitrogen is triple-bonded. Because of that triple bond , nitrogen is quite unreactive and prefers to stay bonded to itself.

In nature, nitrogen will not significantly react with other substances unless the temperature activation energy is very high. Also, some bacteria can fix nitrogen directly from atmospheric nitrogen, but it is an energy-intensive operation that uses the energy in eight ATP molecules to fix each atom of nitrogen.

For the earliest life on Earth, nitrogen would have been essential, and some nitrogen is fixed at volcanic vents , where life may have first appeared. It has held that dominant status for billions of years. Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has been generally decreasing as an atmospheric gas for billions of years, and has consistently declined for the past million years. The geochemical process is like nitrogen's in that atmospheric water combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid, which then falls to Earth in precipitation.

But carbon is in the same elemental family as an abundant crustal element: Carbon replaces the silicon in crustal compounds and turns silicates into carbonates in a process called silicate weathering.

More carbon di oxide was removed from the atmosphere by those processes than was reintroduced to the atmosphere by volcanism and other processes. When life first appeared, it was single-celled and simple, and such organisms are called prokaryotes today.

Below is a diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell. The diagrams used in this chapter are only intended to provide a glimpse of the incredible complexity of structure and chemistry that takes place at the microscopic level in organisms, and people can be forgiven for doubting that it is all a miraculous accident.

I doubt it, too, as did Einstein. Prokaryotes do not have organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and nuclei, but even the simplest cell is a marvel of complexity. Cellular division would be an amazing sight. The so-called tree of life at the microbe level better resembles a web. In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed.

The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called anaerobic respiration because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days.

Predation was then born. Photosynthesis may have begun 3. Bacteria are true photosynthesizers that fix carbon from captured sunlight.

Archaeans cannot fix carbon via sunlight capture , so are not photosynthesizers, even those that capture photons. The scientific consensus today is that a respiration cycle was modified, and a cytochrome in a respiration system was used for capturing sunlight.

Intermediate stages have been hypothesized, including the cytochrome using a pigment to create a shield to absorb ultraviolet light, or that the pigment was part of an infrared sensor for locating volcanic vents. But whatever the case was, the conversion of a respiration system into a photosynthetic system is considered to have only happened once , and all photosynthesizers descended from that original innovation. Metals used by biological processes can donate electrons, unlike those other elements that primarily seek them to complete their shells.

Those metals used by life are isolated in molecular cages called porphyrins. The cycles that capture energy photosynthesis or chemosynthesis or produce it fermentation or respiration generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the Krebs cycle.

The respiration and photosynthesis cycles in complex organisms have been the focus of a great deal of scientific effort, and cyclic diagrams 1 , 2 can provide helpful portrayals of how cycles work. Photosynthesis has several cycles in it, and Nob el Prizes were awarded to the scientists who helped describe the cycles. Below is a diagram of a chlorophyll molecule. Those molecules initiate photosynthesis by trapping photons.

The wavelengths that plant chlorophyll does not absorb well are in the green range, which is why plants are green. Some photosynthetic bacteria absorb green light, so the bacteria appear purple , and there are many similar variations among bacteria.

Those initial higher electron orbits from photon capture are not stable and would soon collapse back to their lower levels and emit light again, defeating the process, but in less than a trillionth of a second the electron is stripped from the capturing molecule and put into another molecule with a more stable orbit.

Separating protons from electrons via chemical reactions, and then using their resultant electrical potential to drive mechanical processes, is how life works.

Early photosynthetic organisms used the energy of captured photons to strip electrons from various chemicals. Hydrogen sulfide was an early electron donor. In the early days of photosynthetic life, there was no atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen, as reactive as it is, was deadly to those early bacteria and archaea, damaging their molecules through oxidization. The dates are c ontroversial, but it appears that after hundreds of millions of years of using various molecules as electron donors for photosynthesis, cyanobacteria began to split water to get the donor electron, and oxygen was the waste byproduct.

Cyanobacterial colonies are dated to as early as 2. Those cyanobacterial colonies formed the first fossils in the geologic record, called stromatolites. At Shark Bay in Australia and some other places the water is too saline to support animals that can eat cyanobacteria, so stromatolites still exist and give us a glimpse into early life on Earth.

Oxygenic photosynthesis uses two systems for capturing photons. The second one called Photosystem I because it was discovered before Photosystem II uses captured photon energy to add an electron to captured carbon dioxide to help transform it into a sugar.

Below is a diagram of the Calvin cycle. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. Some manganese atoms were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis.

It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory. Click on image to enlarge. About the time that the continents began to grow and plate tectonics began, Earth produced its first known glaciers, between 3. It might have been an ice age or merely some mountain glaciation.

Because the evidence is relatively thin, there is also controversy about the extent of Earth's ice ages. But life may well have been involved, particularly oxygenic photosynthesis, and it was almost certainly involved in Earth's first great ice age, which may have been a Snowball Earth episode, and some pertinent dynamics follow.

The ancient carbon cycle included volcanoes spewing a number of gases into the atmosphere, including hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen, but carbon dioxide was particularly important. When the continents began forming, carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere via water capturing it, falling onto the land masses as carbonic acid , the carbon became combined into calcium carbonate, and plate tectonics subducted the calcium carbonate in the ocean sediments into the crust, which was again released as carbon dioxide in volcanoes.

When cyanobacteria began using water in photosynthesis, carbon was captured and oxygen released, which began the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere.

But the process may have not always been a story of continually increasing atmospheric oxygen. There may have been wild swings.

Although the process is indirect, oxygen levels are influenced by the balance of carbon and other elements being buried in ocean sediments. If carbon is buried in sediments faster than it is introduced to the atmosphere, oxygen levels will increase.

Pyrite is comprised of iron and sulfur, but in the presence of oxygen, pyrite's iron combines with oxygen and becomes iron oxide, also known as rust and the sulfur forms sulfuric acid. Pyrite burial may have acted as the dominant oxygen source before carbon burial did.

The dissolved iron was oxidized from a soluble form to an insoluble one, which then precipitated out of the oceans in those vivid red the color of rust layers that we see today and are called banded iron formations "BIFs" , which became an oxygen sink and kept atmospheric oxygen low.

Far less ore needs to be melted to get an equivalent amount of iron. BIFs are the source of virtually all iron ore that humans have mined. Life processes almost certainly performed the initial work of refining iron, and humans easily finished the job billions of years later. Copper was not refined by life processes, and copper ore takes twice as much energy to refine as iron ore does.

When BIF deposition ended about 2. The high oxygen levels may have turned pyrite on the continents into acid, which increased erosion, flooded essential nutrients, particularly phosphorus, into the oceans, and would have facilitated a huge bloom in the oceans. The first was a positive excursion more carbon than expected , and the second was negative.

Scientists are still trying to determine what caused them. Beginning a little less than 2. Atmo spheric oxygen prevented Earth from losing its water as Venus and Mars did, which saved all life on Earth. An atmosp here of as little as two percent oxygen may have been adequate to form the ozone layer, and that level was likely first attained during the first GOE.

Ultraviolet light carries more energy than visible light and breaks covalent and other bonds and wreaks biological havoc , particularly to DNA and RNA. Ultraviolet light damage presented a formidable evolutionary hurdle, and proteins and enzymes that assist cellular division are like those that arose to repair damaged DNA.

During the Permian-Triassic extinction event , which was the greatest extinction event yet known, there is evidence that the ozone layer was depleted and ultraviolet light damaged photosynthesizing organisms that formed the base of the food chains.

From the formation of stromatolites to mass extinction events, ultraviolet light has played a role. Today's prevailing hypothesis is that an archaean enveloped a bacterium, either by predation or colonization, and they entered into a symbiotic relationship. That purple color is probably because the original enveloped bacterium that led to the first mitochondrion was purple. That first mitochondrion became, according to the most restricted definition , the first organelle.

Cells with organelles are called eukaryotes , and today they are generally thought to have descended from that instance when a hydrogen-eating archaean enveloped a hydrogen-producing bacterium. That animation of ATP Synthase in action depicts a typical event in life forms - the generation of energy as protons cross a membrane - which in that instance makes the turbine rotate that manufactures ATP. For prokaryotes , the cellular membrane is their only one and the site of the process that fuels their lives.

If the diameter of a spherical bacterium is doubled, its surface area increases four times, but its volume increases eight times, and the disparity between surface area and volume increases as the diameter does.

That means that with increasing size comes slower metabolism, so the cell becomes sluggish. Imagine a grown man trying to live on the calories that he ingested when he was an infant.

This horn is absolutely a gorgeous time capsule. It is all original with matching serial numbers. It is in fantastic condition for nearing years old. The slide has the original tubes in great shape and the slide action is extremely respectable for a trombone of this vintage.

The hand engraving is jaw dropping gorgeous. Lion head engraving on the slide is also clear and not worn. A well used and well loved Shires trombone, early production! The bell is hand engraved and would become the 1Y bell flare. The horn has a Thayer valve with original nickel shires thumb paddle, the slide is a dual bore. Owned by one of the top jazz trombonists here in LA, this is an extremely nice playing Bach 12 Mt Vernon.

Its not in perfect shape cosmetically but it is nicely broken in with lots of strong slots and fast response. This one reminds me of a baseball glove that your friend has that's perfectly seasoned. Yep, that is this trombone. A nifty Selmer Paris Bolero trombone. Not only is it good for Bolero, it is also good for all sort of commercial playing. It is a versatile size, similar to the King 3B,. A nice touch, the bell has a small brass garland on the rim.

These are high quality instruments and a bargain price. In good used condition with typical wear and tear. A gorgeous vintage Mirafone bass trumpet in Bb with 4 rotary valves. Appropriate for Janacek, Wagner, Stravinsky or any other prominent bass trumpet literature. The sound is beautiful, singing and colorful. Nice intonation and very easy to play.

In very good condition and especially rare to find these with 4v. Includes a very nice lightweight nylon gig bag. This was the Ralph Sauer setup for many years before Ralph switched to his Shires with similar specs. The 88HTO has an open wrap F attachment and thin red brass bell flare. The SL slide is a dual bore. It is in very good, lightly used shape and is an excellent player.

Perfect for the trombonist looking for a large orchestral sound but something that speaks a bit faster and is a bit more nimble than a full. This one is a bell tuning model and measures to a. The engraving is all hand done and features Earl's bulldog on the bell. Overall the trombone has seen better days and is in need of some love and repairs to be completely playable again at a professional level. As such, it is priced low with he hopes that someone will invest in bringing this rare instrument back to life.

This Shires bass trombone is a few years old and remains in very good condition. A really great playing instrument that is versatile and comfortable. A uniquely unusual renaissance instrument, the tenor cornett aka Lizard, Lysarden, Lysard. This one is unstamped but extremely well made and high quality wood, wrapped in traditional black leather. It is in D with a key for C. Includes a mouthpiece made of horn. Sure to impress your friends and audiences alike.

Here is a nice workhorse Bach LT16M trombone. It has an open neckpiece, lightweight nickel slide and a one piece yellow brass bell. The model made famous by Bill Watrous. This one is in excellent shape and ready to play. Here's a well used Shires Bass Trombone. A good solid playing instrument, priced to sell. There are some scratches, lacquer wear and signs of use but don't let that deter you, its just cosmetic.

Here is something really unique and amazing! This is a custom made Thein bass trombone and has great features and specs. The F attachment is a Hagmann valve, a custom removable 2nd valve was fabricated to fit and works extremely well.

The main tuning slide is from a shires and has been custom fit to this instrument to give it a more "American" blow and response. The instrument also includes a single valve F tuning slide. In great condition, lacquer on the bell is frosted from being in a cold climate. Comes with a Thein flat screw bell case. Probably the best playing pocket tuba in the world. Here is a BBb pocket tuba from Manfred Schmelzer.

This is by far the best design for a small "tornister tuba" I've seen so far and that is because of its full length leadpipe and impressive large bore bends. This is the ultimate pit tuba. If you are a doubler and need a great playing BBb that you can take to work for your show work, this is the one. Or if you're looking for a really good playing tuba that you can take on the road with minimal space, this is it.

It was a demo model from the recent ITF International Trombone Festival in Redlands, and is new but did have a small mishap with the airlines during transit to the show and there is a small ding in the bell flare. As such, get it at a good discount. Silver plated with gold plated trim. Get a great deal on this brand new Yamaha Xeno bass trombone. This one was a demo model and is in perfect condition, with some minor scratches on the outside of the case only. Comes with original mouthpiece.

Beautiful like new Kanstul bass trombone. Modeled after the vintage Conn 62H trombones, this Kanstul features "tuning in the slide", fully conical back bow, thin red brass bell, wide slide and free blowing CR valves. Very nice instrument indeed. One gold brass leadpipe included. One of the most desirable medium bore trombones in the world. Up for sale, an Earl Williams model 8 trombone in excellent condition. This instrument was made in the late s by Earl's son, Bob Williams at the Burbank shop.

It has an 8. It blows like a jazzer but sounds like a big horn. If you're looking for a commercial trombone that has a big sound, this is the one. This one is really a beautiful instrument, has a silver plated slide, lacquered bell. Slide action is great. The bell flare is very thin and lightweight. Lots of fast notes still left in it. Bob is extremely picky about his trombones and he's owned this one for many years. There is a smallpre-emptive patch on the bell rim, as the metal is thin there and Bob didn't want the rim to split.

A great playing vintage Bach 42B "Corporation" from the early s. Features the larger Marston made rotary valve same valve on the Mt Vernons with a closed wrap. Silver finish in decent shape, some silver is worn through showing brass on the neckpipe which you can see in the photos easily covered up with a leather neck guard.

This 42 has one of the sweetest and clearest tones of 42s that have come through the shop. Really a beautiful blowing and sounding instrument. We had a beautiful vintage Elkhart Conn 88H come into the shop and thought it would be a nice candidate for a full conversion.

We decided to leave the closed wrap intact to preserve the vintage feel but install our new modern rotary valve. The closed wrap also has our custom ferrules installed. The bell has had Don's voodoo treatment, new slide crook and our custom Brassark BA2 leadpipe, which is a nice match to the instrument. Threaded leadpipe receiver has been installed and fits Shires threads. We decided to leave the slide the original "narrow" width of an 88H.

The instrument was then lightly buffed and relacquered. A top tier Conn 88H with our well balanced rotary valve that gives vast improvement on the F side of the instrument. This one projects like crazy, big warm sound with clarity and color. Here is a brand new demo Schilke model ST30 trombone. Think like a Conn 6H that's been pimped out. Quality and craftsmanship is very nice and it feels good in the hand.

Includes a Schilke hard case. Here is a very cool setup, an Edwards T finished in brushed lacquer with two bell flares, one yellow brass and one red brass. Includes a newish protec case as well.

The yellow bell is a CF and the red bell is a CF. The condition is excellent on this trombone and it is a great playing jazzer. Rare Burbank Earl Williams model 6 trombone,. This one was made by Bob Williams, Earl's son. The outer tubes and leadpipe are from a Conn H there is a small patch on the bottom tube. The bell is unstamped but is obviously original to the horn and authentic Williams. As such, price reflects so this is a bargain for a monster playing Williams. In near factory condition.

Get a bargain on this horn. A very nice "L series" Conn 8D professional french horn, raw nickel silver. In very good condition. There is a small patch in the flare shown in photo. The valves have been plated and are sealing well. Includes a leather Marcus Bonna case. A very rare gem of a bass trombone, this instrument was purchased new in and immediately modified by Larry Minick into the configuration you see here. He built the inline valve section as well as installing an unstamped 62H bell flare that Minick was certain was an improvement over the original bell flare, it was installed and remains on this instrument.

The original leadpipe and Minick Leadpipes are included. The valve configuration is inline: It has been used for many years and shows that is has but overall is in very good condition with a lot of life left.

This thing is a gas to play, its everything you expect it to be and more. These rarely show up for sale and I can speculate that the inline Minick bass trombones are fewer than you can count on your hand. Stunning vintage Bach Mt Vernon 50B with inline hangman valves. We built this instrument here at The Brass Ark for one of our clients. The valve section is an inline progressive bore with rose brass tubing. One of the nicest bass trombones we've ever had at the shop.

Included with the instrument is the original MV case no longer fits this wrap and the original single valve parts. Extremely rare jazz trombone made by the legendary trombone builder, Earl Williams.

This instrument is one of the earliest stamped model 4 trombones I've seen. It was made at the Los Angeles shop and still has the prominent "williams" trademarks: It was fully restored in by Robb Stewart. Robb fabricated new cork barrels to match the original as well as rotated the inner tubes to extend the life of them.

He also did a nice patch on the original slide crook. It was buffed and relacquered by Robb. This is a stunning trombone and one of the very best jazzers I've ever played. Beautiful lightly used Edwards TE. This one has some unique specs! Comes with three leadpipes and a sterling silver T3 leadpipe. A very nice Edwards fiberglass lightweight case is included.

Here's a nice miraphone model BBb tuba with 4 rotary valves. It has had some repairs and shows cosmetic blems in the lacquer as well as some scratching in the finish. Nice quality tuba that's functioning as it should. The valve linkages have been upgraded to minibal style. A winter style hardcase with wheels is included.

This is a great deal on a top level professional CC tuba. Overall the instrument is in nice used condition. It does have worn spots through the silver and there are some small dings and dents. It is a very solid player with excellent intonation. The low register has a nice powerful sound that blends nicely in ensemble. Nearly new condition professional double French horn made by Mark Atkinson in Burbank. It is all nickel silver and has a Kruspe valve wrap. It is a Geyer style wrap with a medium throat bell and built from rose brass.

This instrument came directly from Conn and has not been previously owned. It has a cut bell and comes with the original Conn case. Alexander, a top tier maker. This instrument is gorgeous and has a beautiful descant tone, ultra clear and bright with lots of colors. In overall very good used condition with tight valves. Comes with a cut bell case. A very nice Conn 4H in the rare satin silver finish. Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studio scene.

Extremely good player and in very good condition. Here's an Elkhart Conn 6H. It was owned by Alex Iles. There are some dents and some serious slide wear to the inner tubes.

A nice player though it needs some love. Older Yamaha YEP 4 valve euphonium. Previously owned by Alex Iles of the LA studios. This instrument has had a Minick style tuning trigger added on the main slide to help with tuning on the fly. Overall in very good used condition. Professional Jupiter Jazzer trombone, previously owned by Alex Iles. This model has a. These Jupiter trombones are becoming very popular. This one has a gold brass bell flare and plays well.

Hip Jazz trombone developed back in the s with John Fedchock. This particular instrument was owned previously by Alex Iles. It is in nice used condition and ready to play. Somewhat rare, this is a Bach model 36GO, gold brass bell flare and open wrap valve.

In very nice condition with case. A great playing instrument that is a versatile size. Good for symphonic literature as well as commercial applications. Extremely rare bass trombone made by the famous maker, Larry Minick. This one appears to be a purpose built instrument, in that it wasn't another instrument before like a modified 62H. It has a one piece Minick bell flare, the valves are dependent and also stamped. The J bend tuning slide is prominent in the design and the slide also appears to be custom made.

The valves are tuned as normal in F and D. The leadpipe is press fit, but has corroded and should be replaced. This is a killer instrument and I've only seen a handful ever. A unique opportunity to have one of the most coveted bass trombones in the world. Made in the mid s in England not a Music Group made Besson , this euphonium has the sweetest sound. I had Brad Close make and install a custom standard large shank mouthpiece receiver so it takes a normal mouthpiece. Bob Reeves did a full valve alignment.

It is very clean, a few small dings and some lacquer scratches. Comes with a nice form fitting hard case. Rare eB alto trombone made by J. Model 3, which is the large bore. I don't know why it works so well, but despite the size of this alto, it doesn't sound like a tenor trombone. Its a fabulous sounding and looking instrument, very high quality craftsmanship.

Nickel silver bell garland and nickel slide. This is a new demo model that was assembled from parts that were shown at a trade show. It looks nearly new with a few small blems in the lacquer. Really a tremendous playing shires. This is an unusual but very special trombone. The model 45 is a special order dual bore small bass trombone.

It has a 9" gold brass bell, open wrap F attachment and narrow width dual bore. This particular instrument was hand assembled from parts at the Bach factory with assistance from Joe Alessi. It has had two owners and is in good condition. I've not seen another one like this before. Custom made Edwards bass trombone with a s Corporation Bach 50 bell flare.

This bass is great, lots of presence and core with a penetrating focused sound. Tons of clarity with a big open blow and immediate response. Always something special about the Conn 78H trombones.

They have wonderful sounds and offer a great amount of versatility. The 78H has a. This one is in fantastic shape and has the desirable gold brass slide tubes.

Very clean Bach 36G with convertible valve section you can take the F valve off and make this into a straight trombone, a nifty thing indeed. Additionally, the valve section has been customized to an open wrap design by Dick Akright in Oakland.

Another bonus, a seamed copper Hoelle tuning slide is also included along with the original tuning slide crook. Alright folks, here's a really unique bass trombone. Pull up a chair, cause here's a story for you. Legend has it that Jeff Reynolds once flattened a Conn Fuchs bass trombone while out jeeping and Larry Minick returned the instrument to playable condition.

I have reason to believe that the slide for this trombone is from that original Fuchs instrument. Don Sawday found the bell in the attic of a music shop here in LA many years ago still wrapped in the plastic. Don acquired the slide from Jeff. I had Don mate these two together, which is the instrument presented here.

The slide has new inner tubes and a proper threaded connector now as well as threaded leadpipe receiver. This is a unique horn folks. This horn is a workhorse and has been well used. It is a great player, has a gold brass bell, thayer valve and standard weight slide. Cosmetically it has been well used but is a very solid playing Bach. Small patch on one of the outer tubes. Talk about being a trumpet hero, this trumpet is all about that.

This horn is in great shape with no signs of wear. In very good condition and particularly good looking! The F valve has had a custom ball and socket linkage upgrade done with improves it a lot. Here's a good deal for a serious trombonist on a budget. This is a Bach 42BO, fairly recent and overall in good shape with the exception of the bell flare, which was damaged and repaired.

Whoever did the repair did a poor job and has scarred the flare and thinned the rim bead. As such, this trombone is offered at a bargain price as is. A beautiful trombone we recently refinished here at the shop. From the mid s and has all the nice features of this great era of vintage Conn trombones. The bell has the deco engraving, tuning slide has the nickel guard and the slide has both bronze outer tubes and thick slide braces.

There is some minor wear on the inner tubes. A really gorgeous vintage Conn that plays amazingly well. The technical model number for this instrument is a D and Kanstul hasn't made many of them. This one is special, as it was ordered in the style of a Bach bass trombone with tuning in the slide.

Additionally it has a removable 2nd valve. More cool stuff, it has a harmonic brace installed which lets you fine tune your vibrance with harmonic pillars none included, but you can get some from Edwards in various metals and sizes. What more can I say. Another killer custom bass trombone, this time based on a King Duo Gravis. It has a vintage DG bell flare with dependent Getzen rotary valves, original King slide with a Bach 50 slide crook.

Might be one of the best playing commercial style bass trombones I've ever had at the shop. Also has a harmonic brace installed which fits Edwards harmonic pillars. Another one of a kind single valve bass trombone with a "Bartok" 2nd valve, which lets you extend your F tuning slide on a finger paddle. The bell flare is a YBL gold brass flare. The valve section is a Shires trubore and the Bartok mechanism was fabricated by Shires.

The slide is a B62 standard. In great shape and plays great. Used Shires Axial "Thayer" valve section with open wrap. The valve casing and core have just been replaced at the Shires factory with new parts, this is a new valve with vintage tubing. Has the original paddle type thumb trigger. Dig this, this trombone was purchased new in and has been only owned by one person and has spent its life here in LA being used professionally. It is exactly what you'd want in a sterling silver 2B, the right vintage, the right condition and the right provenance.

Sure, it has some signs of use, but it is in great shape overall and the character oozing from this horn is exciting. This one has some serious mojo!

Absolutely beautiful vintage Bach 37ML trumpet in great shape, with original lacquer which has patina to a nice honey color. It is in tremendous condition. You'd be hard pressed to find a nice vintage Bach 37 around in my humble opinion.

This is a nice bargain tenor sackbut with F extension, good for a player looking to get into the sackbut scene with a quality german made instrument. Appropriate for bass sackbut parts as well because of the valve section. Beautiful vintage Conn 72H bass trombone in excellent condition. These are the vintage that is most desirable. The outer slide tubes are "bronze" and with thicker stock and oversleeves. The bell engraving is crisp and the rotor valve seals nicely. The 72H is a bell tuning version of the famous 70H bass trombone with tuning in the slide.

The handslide is longer on a 72H to facilitate a low C in tune. The Miraphone contrabass trombone in BBb, complete with giant bell and quad bore slide. This thing is a sound monster. It isn't the easiest thing to play in the world but with some practice you will own the foundation in any brass ensemble, film score or trombone choir. In very good condition with some minor cosmetic blems.

Slide action is decent for 4 slide tubes. This bell section has a newer "dual bore" rotary valve offered from Shires. It is the same valve used on their "Ralph Sauer" model. Plays great and very even on both sides of the horn.

Add a slide and you've got yourself a nice trombone! Very nice lightly used Yamaha Yeo Bass Trombone, dependent valves with removable 2nd valve to convert to a single trigger. The bell was damaged and repaired in shipping transit and has a scar.

Otherwise in very good condition. Small ding on valve tubing. This is a very nice playing trombone and comes with the special order. King 2B Plus trombone, these are a. These are really great playing trombones with a big sound, predictable response and versatile color.

Great small bore trombone for players looking for an open blowing jazzer. The 32H is a dual bore. No one makes anything like the 32H anymore. I can't think of a more versatile small bore trombone out there. Works great on mic, in the studio, in a live setting, big band or even principal in the orchestra. This one is a late s vintage and is from the most desirable period of 32H trombone production. In very good condition, rare to find these with gold brass bell flare and standard weight slide.

I've always had a soft spot for the often overlooked Conn 79H. Most players didn't know that this trombone was available, but I think its one of the very best instruments Conn ever made. There is something special about the bell flares on these instruments and the added bonus of having an F attachment is huge. This one is in very good condition, some minor slide wear and cosmetics from the contact points but overall very clean.

This is a no frills instrument but it gets the job done. Open wrap valve in rose brass, rose brass bell, reversed tuning slide and narrow large bore slide. Great for someone on a budget or a budding young trombonist.

Lightly used Shires orchestral tenor trombone with the popular 7YLW bell flare. Shires Trubore valve section and a TW47 slide.

All in excellent like new condition with some minor wear on the valve section and a small dent in the F tuning slide. Very interesting setup, similar to what Ralph Sauer is using. This is a standard 1Y bell, new Shires rotor valve with open wrap and a lightly used T dual bore slide.

The slide has a leadpipe that takes a large shank mouthpiece. This is a great playing trombone, extremely versatile. Very clean Bach 42BOG trombone. Gold brass bell, open wrap valve and lightweight nickel slide. A solid playing trombone from the early s. Very clean Schmelzer Model 1,. Made in Germany by Manfred Schmelzer, this is a top tier jazzer. This one has a gold plated bell section and nickel slide. A really tremendous playing Conn Elkhart 8H from the late s. It's spent its life in Las Vegas playing with many of the legends of music.

Overall in very nice vintage condition and one of the better playing 8Hs I've had come in. This is the famous "Burkle" model 32H trombone, named after its designer Jake Burkle. These are incredibly versatile jazzer trombones that are particularly popular among players accustomed to larger bore trombones and looking for an open blowing jazzer that sounds like a jazzer. The 32H trombone has a. These are fantastic trombones and no one makes anything like it among the modern makers. Chinese made BBb contrabass trombone based on the Miraphone contra, nearly identical specs.

Quality on these has certainly improved. Its not in the same league as the original but at a fraction of the cost, certainly gets the job done.

This one is in very good condition with a decent hardcore. Beautiful late s Conn 6H with the deco engraving. These are highly in demand now, and very hard to find with this engraving and in good condition. Does that make sense? I agree with what other people are saying. Some other favourites of mine are: Still not as good as making your own though. As for how much you should consume to grow? But your overall intake should be enough for you to gain weight on the scale and improve on your strength in the gym.

Surrounding training though you can take advantage of a pretty potent advantage that nutrient timing offers. Would it be possible, especially increase my arm size. You should get started soon though!! However, if I wanted to workout 4 times a week, do you think there would be any negative high calorie effects associated with taking that many calories?

My understanding of the health component of consuming a lot of calories is that it depends on where those calories are going. What a great article, I love the fact that you use research studies to back up your claims. Your photos are also a great testament to your hard work. How gluten free friendly are you guys? I eat a ton of beans and plenty of potatoes. Lots of guys eat tons of rice and quinoa. Pizza and pasta have never been big favourites of mine even from a taste perspective. What dosages do you reccomend for me personally?

Very good article though. I was re-reading the article and was wondering, do I mix 90g of protein, g of carbs, and 15g of creatine also or triple it so it would be g of protein, grams of carbs and 45g of creatine? Would I mix the 3, drink it before, after or during my workout? When would I have to drink the fish oil? I would start with 30g whey protein and 60g maltodextrin. If that goes well and it comes time to increase, then up it to 60g whey protein and g maltodextrin.

Hey man, I started taking 2 2. I know that creatine has a unique relationship with water but if i have a lot of water, will i flush the creatine out of my system when i go to the bathroom? You want to take in a bit more than you need for that reason. What is the best dosage for the NutraSea Fish oil?

Just pour into a tspoon and consume once a day? Yep, consuming once a day is perfect. Or are you just using water in your shakes? Are there any advantages or disadvantages to using milk instead of water? Milk is a surprisingly potent workout drink, considering how ridiculously slowly we digest it! It has a lot of muscle-building benefits built into it, since there are so many rad vitamins and minerals in there, alongside a great source of protein.

You may dig this article, too: I have a very limited budget so I would just like to ask if buying creatine and whey protein will be enough? Or should I buy whey protein and fish oil isntead? I am a beginner when it comes to working out so forgive me for this question. I also read that there are harmful side effects when using fish oil, are those claims true?

You can certainly ask your doctor though! I would also get kidney stones.. Or bowel movement would stop or go crazy if you get what I mean lol.. You think this program can help me. Almost all of us run into our share of mishaps, struggles and challenges with this stuff—I know I did! Yes, I think our program could help.

We take a pretty methodical approach to this and the goal is to make you even more resistant to injury, not set you up for it. You may want to get clearance to do squats and deadlifts again, too. You may find value in this article, too: On non-lifting days I try to eat as much whole nutritious food as possible. When it comes to starches my go-to favourites are: There are tons of options out there—another big favourite for a lot of healthfully-minded dudes is quinoa.

Do you consume the same amount of supplement servings on your rest days as well, or is it only on workout days? Are there any alternate body building supplements without Creatine, because doctor suggested me not to use because. Creatine is not suitable for me. And fish oil is still a great addition to your daily nutrition. However, the protocol seems a little scary. What do you suggest? I was thinking of going for whey protein first.

But would that not add a lot of gains? I hope I converted that right. I wanna gain muscles so bad.. I went through the comments and i hope that you reply on the few ones on top. That will clear out and help me a big time. Hey Sultan, I try to answer every single question!

Do i have to take creatine dosage plus add creatine it to my drink for workout day or the drink is enough? The workout drink is more than enough creatine for the day! Hi Shane my name is Ryan, I just so happened to stumble across one of your articles a couple hours ago and since then have thoroughly enjoyed most of what your website has to offer.

Must say very impressed! A lot has changed since high school, I am 20 years old now and 5 months away from shipping out for basic training for the military cant enlist until braces are off. Now couple years later terrible diet, virtually no excersise, and no supplements.

I am 6foot 1 and pounds. Not chubby at all but def fat has hidden my 6 pack away: As I said I have a few months to jump back on board and I am dead serious about getting in the best shape of my life. I just bought YMCA membership and signed up for swimming lessons.

I want to bulk up with some serious muscle mass and burn some of this 22 percent body fat and get it back down to healthy level. Or will I need to make adjustments? Most people need to make some adjustment or another, as everyone is a little different. Yep, the workout shake will still work.

Just stick with a single dose—for now at least. Hope you decide to join us man! What would you suggest? We live in Toronto too. Seems like a great place to train at! Fish oil timing is one of those cases. This program sounds awesome! And man, looking at this site just makes me so excited to join and try! Thanks for the heads up Oliver! Hey Shane, thanks for your reply. I noticed that you have updated the links, but not all of them. The ones of whey protein and Maltodextrin are still invalid.

Do you mean what do we mix the powders with? Some of our guys use milk though and use a bit less whey and maltodextrin so that it has the same overall nutrient breakdown. I only weigh 47kg. Can you please suggest me a good one. They seem to be broken right now, as bodybuilding. Sorry for the confusion! So which one will give me better result. Still working on it! Hi Shane, thanks for the great post here. The info you guys provide has been very helpful in my quest to gain weight.

I just started using the fish oil that you have recommended thanks for the links and you were right, this stuff is really quite easy to take. However, I just read a study which links omega 3s to a higher risk of prostate cancer. I was wondering if you have read this study yet? I figured I will talk to my doctor about this one before continuing with the omega supplements. Oh man that study has been making waves! Interestingly enough, fish oil actually reduces your chance of getting prostate cancer in several other ways: Aaaaand keep in mind that MOST studies still show that consumption of omega 3s reduces your risk of prostrate cancer!

The media is always coming out with sensational stuff like this, as this new research is shock worthy and increases readership. Thanks Shane, what a great article! As a ectomorph struggling to put on weight this is very helpful. I was going through the comments and must appreciate the fact that you take the time to answer all questions your readers have. Most of my doubts got clarified as I went through your answers. No problem Misha, glad it helped! And this post is broscience all the way.

Just eat and lift heavy. My legs could use a lot more work though. I looking to gain another 10 to 15 pounds of muscle. I train for strength as well for definition. You may not be a hardgainer at all, just a poor eater! You sounds like a good fit for this program, yeah. We can definitely bulk up the stilts, and nothing will do a better job of giving you a strong balanced physique than squats and deadlifts!

Hey Shane, what is your opinion on oatmass as an alternative to maltodextrin? Or, rather, blended oats, as they are essentially the same, right? This stuff is working! However, Ive gained unwanted fat in my middle section, and thighs, where that was never happening in the past. I weigh now around lbs. I still appear skinny to most, but I may be average. Do youvthinkbthos program is right for me? Most guys have a bit of this or that mixed in, often in the form of carrying a little bit extra around the middle hehe.

Now, here comes the problem: Does you guys or any one of your clients ever got ANY stretch marks on your skin due to rapid muscle building? A lot of us ectomorphs have stretch marks from growing UPwards though. A lot of us take to puberty by rapidly shooting sky high instead of getting muscular, it seems. It awes me how much you guys are into this for us, ectomorphs. The past two weeks I merely stood at my current weight. I want to have the leanest possible bulk ever cutting being an ectomorph?

I know what you mean. By super leanly bulking you can always maintain your strength of being lean while adding on the new strength of being strong and healthy. You need to gain weight to grow, so a calorie surplus is your friend! I like to track using the vein on my bicep. I take creatine with some food and use whey after workout but how to use dextrose and maltodextrin: Shane, I read that you use 15g of Creatine when you try to gain some weight.

Is this true or is our maximum of creatine as being an ectomorph much higher? Yeah I used to take 15g of creatine spaced out over a couple hours. Some creatine might have been flushed out, yeah. Hey Shane I wanted to know other than the days im working out and making that double dose shake, should i be having just a regular whey protein shake the days im off? And is having all that protein healthy for you?

Universal Torrent is a pretty good gainer, although once you start having several servings at once the cost quickly adds up! The maltodextrin they load the stuff with costs them pennies and costs you several dollars. I figure may as well just buy it yourself, mix your own perfect ratio, and save a bit of money. Can trim the doses down and fiddle with things if you ever decide to cut or anything.

Getting your protein from a variety of sources is best, and yep whey protein is a totally valid place to get it. I get more than enough there. Can you refresh the links of the lists of supplements please.

Thanks in advance for your reach article that helps me a lot. Lets say will I have to increase my protein intake overtime? And I also read that your body absorbs about 25g of protein in an hour so what would be the point of doubling your protein intake if it would all be converted into waste? I am looking forward to stop drinking Gatorade as it contains quite a lot of sugars, and buy maltodextrin instead as it looks much healthier, thank you Shane for your time and keep it up!

Your site is great. Thanks for the kind words Juan! Comments like yours are why I love writing blog articles so much. Gold Standard is sweet. ON is a good company. Bananas are sweet too, and a great source of vitamins and minerals as well as being a good source of carbs. I think Gatorade is made out of sucrose, which contains fructose. Fructose is absorbed very differently from glucose and not necessarily in a beneficial way.

Not the best thing to be taking in high doses while training. I mean bananas have so many amazing things going for them. If you like the flavour of Gatorade, you could try adding a scoop of Xtend to your drink. You can buy flavouring like citric acid separately too. Yep, you can develop an intolerance from eating too much of anything, really! If your body can only absorb 25g of protein in an hour then drinking more than 25g of whey in an hour will just mean that it takes longer than an hour to digest all of the protein!

If we just peed calories out if we ate them too fast that would be the best news ever for chubby guys and gals, who, presumably, could eat entire cakes just fine so long as they ate them quickly enough.

I use a protein shaker 20oz. You could drink 1 in the change room beforehand, 1 in the gym and 1 after. Thanks Shane for all the help and advice. Can i make this with milk or is the taste not gonna be as good? Also how much milk would you use if you use 28 oz of water? You could probably make it with milk so long as you feel good while drinking it. Could be that fat soluble vitamins, like vitamin D, work better in whole fat milk. Shane im sure you answered this somehwere but since carbo gain doesnt have a scoop how do you measure out a serving size?

Or how many scoops would i use if i used the scooper from the gold whey box. The tub should have nutrition information on the side … but who weighs their food? Right now Jared and I are trying waximaize maltodextrin is way more enjoyable — waximaize seems to be the twin of corn starch and it came with a scoop. And can you help me choose the best creatine brand?

Dextrose tastes like milk sugar, and waximaize tastes like cornstarch — up to your taste buds! Might be better for the teeth, too? Have it right after you finish your workout. That will double the dose and give you some extra calories and extra protein to play around with.

No need to double the creatine, although you could! I am 17 years of age. I know eating more and being beastlier in the kitchen is easier said than done, so just take it day by day and try to build up progressively better and better habits! After all your gains, do you still take supplements? I mean, when people reach their goals in terms of bodyweight, do they stop taking supps easily? I ask because in my country supps are overtaxed, so I see it as an investment, instead of a cheaper alternative to food.

I stress constantly about it, and I just been thinking about anything that could help me with building muscle drug-free is a go, so supplements are my first choice. Buuut… people become hostage to this shit. I wonder if it would be possible to drop naturally, with ease, them once I packed those 20 lb. Would you guys mind telling me a little about your thoughts and experiences? I used to wonder that all the time myself.

Ergogenic supplements SuperPump, NO xplode, jack3d, etc: I felt like I went from being superman to a weak old man when I stopped training with them. The homemade ones are very cheap, and, for MOST people, cheaper than their whole food equivalents.

You can accomplish your gains and then use very minimal dosages or stop using them entirely. Gainers QuickMass, Serious Mass, etc: Kind of useless to begin with and massively overpriced. Food replacements, like whey protein: Stuff like fish oil you might want to take forever.

Stuff like vitamin D is tricky to get naturally, as you need to be outside a lot to encourage your body to synthesize enough of it. Most people need to supplement with it or drink milk, which is fortified with it. Anyway, the short answer to your question is no: If nutritious whole food is cheaper and more accessible for you and you have the appetite to eat it then you could forget about supplements altogether! Good luck gaining your final 20!! Supplements are still cheaper than most whole foods, but not as cheap as you might think.

It is still cheaper taking malto than buying whole food price per calorie , but in the specific case of whey and pre-wo, they are way off the range. Yeah, that helped a lot!

So, did you stop taking supps entirely now that you reached your final weight? I really like it, and I like having goals to work towards. I still take supplements.

It sounds like things are different where you live — I do know that food in Canada is expensive relative to other countries — but whey here in Toronto is muuuch cheaper than, say, chicken breasts, steak or ground meat. If you call it a supplement I also absolutely adore coffee! I have a nice hot mug before pretty much every workout and love it pretty heartily.

As for your creatine questions: Not everyone gets water retention from creatine. All the extra muscle you built while on it … that will stay. How much lean mass can you expect to gain? I went in an added a bunch of studies to the creatine section today. Well, that was the original plan. To be completely honest, I did take around g of malto after workout days for a few weeks and gained some weight. Not that much, though, never passed on my max weight.

Maybe 1 or 2 lbs. VERY slowly, way slower than I would see elsewhere. One thing is the scale moving slowly, other thing is the scale not moving at all! Had problems with whey concentrate, might try isolate. Focus on moving up your weight on the scale each week instead i.

Now that you have my info, my questions: Do you recommend otherwise, and how many servings per day and when is the best time? Please mention the creatine servings too. I noticed last year, although not sure, that briefly taking Whey with milk induced mildish stomach pains. Also, how much cardio should I do? Is a minute session good enough? I usually go start with 1 set wide pull-ups, 1 set push-ups, then 1 set dumb-bell chest-press, 1 set crunches.

REST, repeat 3 times. I substitute the chest-press with the lat pulldown on alternate days, and also include bicep curls, and traps sometimes, and holding a dumbbell while squatting. What do you suggest overall, and how is my plan looking? Where would I be in 3 months? You live in a place where you pretty much only have access to fish, green vegetables and eggs? Sounds like some sort of super-health haven! As for creatine, you want around 6g a day. Your body needs about 3g per day, but we lose a few grams when we take it.

We do some dynamic stretches, a few mobility drills and practice our lifting technique at the beginning of every training session. Different programs are constructed in different ways. As for a specific workout program for you, I would follow one made by an expert! You could use our program which I obviously think is the best one out there ever , or any other number of great programs out there. Definitely thinking about joining the program but have some questions about what I can expect in your program.

Nevermind — the email bounced from the account you have attached to your comment. Shoot us an email at us bonytobeastly. Hey shane i was wondering how many scoops of the carbo gain using the scooper from the gold standard whey is equivalent to 1 serving?

If i am trying to put on a good amount of weight do you sugesst using the 3x dose? A whey scoop holds about 30g 24 of which is protein. For every nice full scoop of whey you put in the drink, put 2 kind of wimpy scoops of maltodextrin in. As for how much you should take, I would let your abs decide. I handle them well, as do most naturally lean super skinny dudes, so a triple dose works well for me.

Start with a single, scale it up. Thanks a lot man that def helps…Il be putting in 4 wimpy scoops of cargo gain then for a double dose! Are you drinking this concoction only on workout days? If so, does this mean your daily caloric intake swings quite a bit between workout days vs.

Yes and often yes! We seem to respond pretty well to cycling carbs and calories. You could skip a snack or shrink the serving sizes of some meals, etc. Excellent article with studies.

I read most of them and went out to buy the 8 lbs of Maltodextrin. I went to research more into Maltodextrin and came across this study http: Our diets DO affect our gut flora, and the healthier and more balanced our diet tends to be the healthier and more resilient that flora tends to be.

WebMD is telling me that these foods commonly cause symptoms to flare up:. Currently, it is unclear how environmental factors contribute to the development of disease. Dietary studies in both mouse models and humans demonstrate large shifts in the composition of the microbiota dependent on diet [16], [25], [26], [27].

Likewise, human studies comparing obese and lean twin pairs demonstrated changes in Bacteroidetes prevalence and a decrease in microbial diversity in obese individuals [47].

The last line says: If these individuals carry other risk factors for CD genetic variants of anti-bacterial response genes such as ATG16L1 or NOD2, for example , this may result in the development of disease in these susceptible individuals.

These findings describe a potential disease mechanism linking the ubiquitous dietary additive MDX to microbial changes in the intestine of CD patients and suggest a novel therapeutic area for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

You are also, of course, perfectly welcome to play it safe and get your carbs from somewhere else! What changes did you make in the October update? I might have a bad memory, but could it be that you had glutamin in there before? If so, why did you drop it? Hey LJ, the changes are prrretty small. We added in a little excerpt from Alan Aragon, explained the methods behind our madness a little more clearly, and we added in a couple more reference studies. Last month we made a slightly more significant change though — we added a TON of new studies, we switched over to recommending Amazon.

Amazon is one of the few sites that stocks it. Consume lots of easily digested proteins, carbs and calories surrounding your training and in general … but still get the majority of your calories from minimally processed nutritious whole foods. Creatine is the most powerful legal muscle-building supplement out there, and it also happens to be cheap, healthy and very very well researched for decades now.

Fish oil helps you get a more balanced fat intake and it has a bunch of promising effects on your health and body composition. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, so taking it alongside a fat like fish oil allows it to be properly absorbed.

Vitamin D fortified whole milk is another effective way to get your vitamin D in. Anyway for now i was really hoping if you could help me anyway with some tips, having just bought some malto and whey i made my first post workout drink of double dose, and for 30 mins afterwards i felt pretty sick lol.

I train 3 times a week doing all the major compound lifts, I eat around calories a day but it seems nothing is paying off right now, being stuck at this size is becoming really disheartening, really knocking my confidence man.

I was wondering if maybe you had any tips for me, tired of being this skinny where i can see my hip bones lol. Being in the UK is great. One of the strongest and most helpful guys in the community, Steve, is British.

Yeah some people handle the drink better than others. The best thing though is to get a really firm grasp on the fundamentals of lifting and eating to build muscle. Shane I think you saved my life… I started bodybuilding a few times, never really bulk any weight… So this time I was determined to use steroids… Gladly I found your website. Now I would have a question… In my country gainers are much more cheaper than protein, so I will use Serious Mass.

The serving size is gr. Could you tell me please how much sould I take during a day, and if I must take-it in non-workout days too? I have some financiar issues, but when I will overcome those, definitely I will sign up for your program. Gainers are usually cheaper than protein but more expensive than maltodextrin. Buying protein and maltodextrin and mixing it up yourself is often cheaper.

Definitely the same idea — the ingredients in Serious Mass are first maltodextrin and second protein albeit a blend. Whole foods will be markedly better. I just noticed the new pictures that u put up of yourself.. I wud also like to share that i gained 5 more kgs since i last messaged you so i weigh in at My aim is muscle gain especially in the arms.

Can i mix whey or a protein blend and mix it up with milk, bananas and peanut butter to achieve the same effect as Serious Mass? Have you used Serious Mass or Combat before? Musclepharm Combat 4lbs blend or Serious Mass 12 lbs? Keeping in mind my aim of muscle gain and of-course cost effectiveness. Eagerly waiting for your reply. No, the effect would be different. Weight gainers do work for ectomorphs — they provide carbs, protein and calories, after all. Man, I felt like such crap after taking them.

Bananas are badass at building muscle. Same deal with peanuts and milk — totally badass in all kinds of subtle ways in addition to being great sources of macronutrients and calories. As for gaining in your arms, stay tuned! A lot of us skinny guys have long lanky arms and struggle with catching them up myself included , even after gaining a bunch of proportional weight.

Thanx a lot man! Is it really needed or is it available in a sufficient quantity in the protein drinks or gainers? Also do u guys use them?

Also i would like to make some requests.. Can you please also make a page where you review various supplements in a video form and discuss about its effectiveness, cost effectiveness and profile? Please upload some videos showing the proper form and movements with which exercises should be done..

Please upload some pictures of your own transformation over the years and last few months.. No need to worry about them.

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